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Anthropology 306
European Archaeology

Fall, 2011
Bol B40, M 5:30-8:10

You call this progress?

  Instructor: Dr. Bettina Arnold
Office Hours: SAB 229 W 11:00-1:00, or by appointment.
Class e-mail reflector:

  Textbook: MCunliffe, Barry (ed.) Europe Between the Oceans 9000 BC-AD 1000. 2011 ed. Yale University Press.
Reader: Available on UWM Library e-Reserve (Not on D2L!).

Instructions for Accessing e-Reserve:
Campus Computer Lab:
Off-campus Computer Access:

  Course Description:

This course presents a survey of European prehistory through the study of archaeological remains from the Paleolithic period until the Roman conquest. The coverage is selective because of the temporal and geographic variability of Europe. Several significant themes are emphasized and important sites from the various selected regions are discussed, centering primarily on west-central Europe. The distribution of sites in the landscape, evidence for subsistence and production, changes in mortuary ritual through time and the way in which ideology is mapped onto material culture and the built environment are components of the way prehistoric European social evolution is interpreted. The course introduces students to the archaeological evidence for the early development of what eventually become the various nation-states of modern Europe. In the process European cultural evolution is compared to other parts of the Old World, and placed in the context of increasing social complexity worldwide and its implications for the future of our species. Format is lecture/discussion, with PowerPoint presentations, films and Web resources.

Evaluation and Grading:

Undergraduates: Two map quizzes (20%), a midterm exam with take-home essays (30%), a final exam with take-home essays (30%), one short paper (5-10 pages) based on supplemental reading (15%), attendance and participation (5%). Paper may be turned in at any time during the semester, but no later than Dec. 12!

Graduate Students: Two map quizzes (20%), midterm and final exams without take-home essays (40%), final paper (15-20 pages) (40%).

Extra Credit: Students may earn up to 3 extra credit points by attending talks sponsored by the Archaeological Institute of America (see for schedule of talks), the Anthropology Department's Colloquium series (TBA in class) and the Wisconsin Archaeological Society (see for schedule of talks).

Academic Misconduct:

Please read carefully! Cheating and plagiarism are serious offenses and will not be tolerated. Any student who engages in academic misconduct as defined below will receive an F in this course. Student academic misconduct procedures are specified in Chapter UWS 14 and the UWM implementation provisions (Faculty Document 1686 as follows:

Academic misconduct is an act in which a student seeks to claim credit for the work or efforts of another without authorization or citation, uses unauthorized materials or fabricated data in any academic exercise, forges or falsifies academic documents or records, intentionally impedes or damages the academic work of others, engages in conduct aimed at making false representation of a student's academic performance, or assists other students in any of these acts. Prohibited conduct includes cheating on an examination; collaborating with others in work to be presented, contrary to the stated rules of the course; submitting a paper or assignment as one's own work when a part or all of the paper or assignment is the work of another; submitting a paper or assignment that contains ideas or research of others without appropriately identifying the sources of those ideas; stealing examinations or course materials; submitting, if contrary to the rules of a course, work previously presented in another course; tampering with the laboratory experiment or computer program of another student; knowingly and intentionally assisting another student in any of the above, including assistance in an arrangement whereby any work, classroom performance, examination or other activity is submitted or performed by a person other than the student under whose name the work is submitted or performed.


Reading Assignments

Week 1, Sept. 5
No in-class lecture!
Introduction: Geographical and Chronological Framework
Cunliffe Ch. 1; Reader 1(1) T. Douglas Price and Gary Feinman 1997 Images of the Past, pp. 444-447 and 487-490. 2nd edition. Mountain View: Mayfield.

Week 2, Sept. 12 Brief history of European archaeology
Cunliffe Ch. 2; Reader 2(1) Kevin Greene 1995 Archaeology: An Introduction, pp. 8-36. 3rd edition. London: Batsford.

Week 3, Sept. 19 The Upper Paleolithic: The End of the Ice Age
Cunliffe Ch. 3; Reader 3(1) Chris Scarre 1998. Exploring Prehistoric Europe, Ch. 2 pp. 28-44. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reader 3(2) Price & Feinman pp. 102-105.

Week 4, Sept. 26 The Mesolithic: Sedentism, Shellmounds and Social Change
Reader 4(1) Price & Feinman pp. 146-151.

In-class Map Quiz!

Week 5, Oct. 3 The Neolithic: Transition to Food Production
Cunliffe Ch. 4; Reader 5(1) Price & Feinman pp. 444-449 and 456-459; 5(2) Marek Zvelebil 1998. What's in a name: the Mesolithic, the Neolithic, and social change at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition. In Mark Edmonds and Colin Richards (eds) Understanding the Neolithic of Northwestern Europe, pp. 1-36. Glasgow: Cruithne Press.

Week 6, Oct. 10 The Neolithic: Megaliths and Landscape Marking
Cunliffe Ch. 5; Reader 6(1) Ian Thorpe 2004 The megalithic world. In Peter Bogucki and Pam J. Crabtree (eds) Ancient Europe: Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World I, pp. 398-406. New York: Thompson & Gale; 6(2) Price & Feinman pp. 460-463; 6(3) Scarre Chs. 4 & 6.

Week 7, Oct. 17 The Neolithic: Increasing Social Differentiation
Cunliffe Ch. 6; Reader 7(1) Price & Feinman pp. 450-455; 7(2) Scarre Chs. 7 & 8.

Week 8, Oct. 24
The Neolithic/Bronze Age Transition
Reader 8(1) Mark Pearce 2004 The significance of bronze. In Bogucki & Crabtree, pp. 6-11; 8(2) Price & Feinman, pp. 476-479.

Week 9, Oct 31 The Bronze Age: Technology and Trade
Cunliffe Ch. 7; 9(1) Vajk Szverenényi 2004 The Early and Middle Bronze Ages in Central Europe. In Bogucki and Crabtree, pp. 20-30; 9(2) Anthony Harding 2000 Ch. 6 European Societies in the Bronze Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Week 10, Nov. 7 The Bronze Age: Social Complexity and Stratification
Cunliffe Ch. 8; Reader 10(1) Andrew Sherratt 1997 (1987) Cups that Cheered. In A. Sherratt 1997 Economy and Society in Prehistoric Europe Ch. 15. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 10(2) Timothy Champion et al. 1984 Prehistoric Europe Ch. 7; London: Academic Press.

Week 11, Nov. 14 The Bronze Age: Warfare and Defense
Reader 11(1) Robert Chapman 1995 Urbanism in Copper and Bronze Age Iberia? In B. Cunliffe and S. Keay (eds) Social Complexity and the Development of Towns in Iberia: From the Copper Age to the Second Century AD, pp. 29-46. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 11(2) Peter Bogucki 2004 Late Bronze Age Urnfields of Central Europe. In Bogucki and Crabtree, pp. 86-91.

Week 12, Nov. 21 The Iron Age: New Metal, New Horizons
Cunliffe Ch. 9; Reader 12(1-2) Scarre Chs. 11-12.

Week 13, Nov. 29 The Iron Age: Mediterranean Interaction and Reaction
Cunliffe Ch. 10; Reader 13(1) Price & Feinman pp. 480-483; 13(2) Peter S.Wells 1995 Trade and Exchange. In Miranda Green (ed.) The Celtic World, pp. 230-243. London and New York: Routledge.

Week 14, Dec. 6 The Iron Age: Romans and "Barbarians"
Cunliffe Ch. 11; Reader 14(1) Olivier Büchsenschütz 1995 The Celts in France. In M. Green, pp. 552-580; 14(2) Scarre Ch. 13.

In-class Map Quiz!

Week 15, Dec. 12 Celts, Germans and Romans: Europe in Transition
Cunliffe Ch. 12; Milisauskas Ch. 11; Reader 15(1) Graham Webster 1995 The Celtic Britons under Rome. In M. Green, pp. 623-635. All Papers Due!!

Week 16 December 19 5:30-7:30 Final Exam!!!

  Undergraduate Paper Guidelines and Topics

  1. Demonstrate the ability to research a topic successfully in depth as demonstrated by locating and citing seminal sources on the chosen topic.
  2. Produce a summary of the work of those scholars whose research and interpretations have contributed significantly to our understanding of the chosen topic.
  3. Provide a critical evaluation of the issues and possible divergent opinions associated with the analysis of the chosen topic, suggesting possible avenues for further investigation.

These topics are ONLY suggestions. If you have an idea for a paper topic not listed here, please be sure to e-mail me a paragraph describing it and providing some sources you plan to use well before you begin your research (that is, AT LEAST two weeks before the due date!).
  1. Function(s)/meaning of Upper Paleolithic cave art or mobiliary art
  2. Function(s)/meaning of Neolithic megaliths
  3. Warfare in the Neolithic/Bronze Age transition in Europe
  4. Impact of contact with the Mediterranean on Iron Age societies in Central Europe
  5. Interpretation of ritual sites such as circular enclosures (Neolithic/Bronze Age) or Viereckschanzen (La Tène period)
  6. Technology and social change (Examples: food production, bronze working, iron working etc.)
  7. Gender, age and/or status configurations as reflected in burials (Example: Deviant burials)
  8. Function(s)/meaning of votive deposits in Europe
  9. Interpretation(s) of bog bodies in Europe
  10. Application of a particular archaeological methodology to some aspect of European prehistory (isotope analysis, metallurgical analysis, radiocarbon dating, experimental archaeology etc.)
Undergraduate and Graduate Paper Format:
  1. Papers must be typed (computer or typewriter) with margins of 1" (no more, no less).

  2. Paginate all pages beginning with Page 2!

  3. Papers must be double-spaced.

  4. Make sure your name is on the paper and that the paper has a title.

  5. Undergraduates: Paper must be 5-10 pages long. You must cite at least 10 sources in constructing your argument. These may be drawn from the Course Reader, but at least 3 must be sources you have tracked down on your own. NONE of these may be Web sources unless the article comes from a reputable database such as JSTOR and is published in a peer-reviewed journal. Use the Bibliographies from class readings as a starting point for your source search. Other places to find sources include Eureka, WorldCat (see UWM Library Web site for links) and the Anthropological Index On-Line (

    Graduate Students: Paper must be 15-20 pages long. You must cite at least 20 sources, at least 15 of which must be sources you have tracked down yourself and NONE of which may be Web sources unless the article comes from a reputable database such as JSTOR and is published in a peer-reviewed journal. You may cite a maximum of 5 sources from the Course Reader. See data base information above.
  6. When citing sources (whether quoting directly or paraphrasing) within the text, the following rules apply:

    The author's last name (include the first initial only if there are two authors with the same last name cited in the paper) followed by the year of the publication, a colon and the page number(s): (Renfrew 1979: 112-15). (This is the standard procedure in anthropological publications). Quotation marks should be used where appropriate, as in the examples below.

    Ex. #1 Direct quotation: "The moon is made of green cheese" (McDonald 1989:123).
    Ex. #2 Paraphrasing: According to Williams, the moon is made of fried green tomatoes (1988:19-23).

  7. You must include a bibliography with full references at the end of the paper. You may use any of the articles assigned for the class as a template for the bibliography. KEY: Whatever format you choose, BE CONSISTENT!

  8. Good luck! E-mail me at if you have any questions.

Writing Center Information: The Writing Center in Curtin 127 and a satellite location in the East Wing of the Library welcomes writers from any discipline, at all skill levels, inexperienced through advanced, freshmen through graduate students. No matter where students are in a task, whether still exploring a reading, brainstorming, drafting or revising, they can benefit from talking to one of our well-qualified and trained tutors. Call 229-4339, make appointments online 24/7:, or walk in. Writers can make their own 30 or 60 minute appointments on the website or simply walk in to CRT 127 or the Library to see if a tutor is immediately available. Open until 7:00 pm Mon-Wed nights. Synchronous online tutoring is also an option via the website:, or walk in.

Fall 2011 Writing Center Hours:
Monday, Wednesday, Thursday, 9:00am - 7:00pm
Tuesday, 9:00am - 4:00pm
Friday, 9:00am - 1:00pm


© 2003 Bettina Arnold, Dept. of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Design: Homer Hruby, Last Updated: August 21, 2011