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Anthropology 381
Gender and Archaeology (Honors)

Fall 1998


Would that be matrilocal or patrilocal, professor?

  TTh 2:05-3:20 BOL 768B
OFFICE: Bolton 746 TEL: 229-4175
HOURS: T 3:30-4:30 W 1:30-2:30 or by appointment
E-mail: barnold@csd.uwm.edu
Website: http://www.uwm.edu/~barnold/

COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course is an introduction to developments in anthropological and archaeological research on women and gender over the past two decades. We will examine the issue of engendering archaeology from an anthropological, historical, political and methodological perspective. How do we recognize gender archaeologically? What are the benefits, as well as the limitations, of an "engendered" approach to the study of prehistoric societies? The course will focus on the interdisciplinary implications of such questions in archaeology with a more general examination of anthropological theories regarding sex and gender roles.

READINGS: There are two primary textbooks for this course:

Gero, J.M. and M. Conkey (eds) 1991 Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory. New York: Basil Blackwell.

Nelson, Sarah Milledge 1997 Gender in Archaeology. London: Altamira Press.

Additional readings will be available in the Anthropology Reading Room in Bolton Hall.


OTHER GENDER AND ARCHAEOLOGY WEB SITES

arrow  Diotima - Materials for the Study of Women and Gender in the Ancient World

arrow  Exploring Gender Through Archaeology

arrow  Women in the Ancient Near East: A Select Bibliography of Recent Sources in The Oriental Institute Archives


EVALUATION AND GRADING:
  1. Two short papers (5 pages minimum): 40% of the course grade. Choose two of the weekly topics, and provide an opinion piece on that topic. See attached guide to preparing short papers. Important: Papers are always due on the class following the topic week. Penalty for late papers: One full point per day. Each paper is worth 20% of your final grade, so one full point is 1% of the final grade. This adds up, so stay on schedule!

  2. Final paper (15 pages minimum): 37% of the course grade. Choose one of the short paper topics and expand it, or you may choose a different course topic for the final paper. Be sure to include any references not assigned as class reading in your bibliography.

  3. Weekly Summaries of Readings: 13% of the course grade. Students will choose three articles from the additional readings each week and will hand in 1 paragraph (single spaced) summaries for each article. Summaries are due each Tuesday for that week's readings, beginning with Sept. 8. See attached guidelines for preparing summaries.

  4. Group Work: 10% of the course grade. Beginning with Week 4, every two weeks (even numbered weeks), a group of three students will come to class with a set of 5 discussion questions addressing the key points covered by the reserve reading for that two week topic. The Group Questions should be signed by all participants and handed in at the end of class. See attached guidelines for Group Work.
Course Topics and Paper Due Dates
Weeks 1-2 Definitions & Concepts and Historical Perspectives on Gender in Archaeology
Sept 3  
Sept 8/10 Summary Set #1 due Sept 10!

Weeks 3-4 The Evolution of "Man": Biological Perspectives
Sept 15/17 Summary Set #2 due Sept 15!
Sept 22/24 Summary Set #3 & Presentation (Group 4) due Sept 24!

Weeks 5-6 "Desperately Seeking Models": Ethnographic Analogy
Sept 29/Oct 1 Summary Set #4 due Sept 29!
Oct 6/8 *Paper #1 due Oct 1!*
  Summary Set #5 & Presentation (Group 1) due Oct 8!

  Gender and Archaeology Conference UWM Union, October 9-10!!
For program see http://www.uwm.edu/~barnold/gender.html

Weeks 7-8 Space and Gender: Forest, Field, House, Village, City
Oct 13/15 **No Class October 13 or 15!**
Oct 20/22 Summary Set #6 & Presentation (Group 3) due Oct 22!

Weeks 9-10 "Sleep's Sister Death": Burial Evidence
Oct 27/29 Summary Set #7 due!
Nov 3/5 Summary Set #8 & Presentation (Group 2) due Nov 5!

Weeks 11-12 "Women's Work": Gender and Systems of Production
Nov 10/12 Summary Set #9 due Nov 10!
  *Paper #2 Due November 12!*
Nov 17/19 Summary Set #10 & Presentation (Group 5) due Nov 19!

Weeks 13-14 "Romancing the Goddess": Feminist Archaeology and the Public
Nov 24 Summary Set #11 due Nov 24!
Dec 1 Summary Set #12 due Dec 1!
  **No Class November 26 or December 3!**

Week 15 "Indiana Joans": Women in Archaeology
Dec 8/10 Summary Set #13 due Dec 8!

Week 16 Final Paper Due December 18 by 5pm!
December 18
 


READING ASSIGNMENTS: All additional readings are available in the Bolton Hall Anthropology Reading Room unless otherwise indicated!

Weeks 1-2 Definitions & Concepts/Historical Perspectives
  Gero & Conkey: Chapters 1 and 2
  Nelson: Chapter 1 and 2

Additional reading: Choose two each week to summarize!

1. Claassen, C. 1992 Questioning gender: an introduction. In Exploring Gender through Archaeology, edited by C. Claassen, pp. 1-9. Madison: Prehistory Press.

2. Dobres, M.-A. 1988 Feminist archaeology and inquiries into gender relations: some thoughts on universals, origin stories and alternative paradigms. Archaeological Review from Cambridge 7(1):30-44.

3. Gilchrist, R. 1991 Women's archaeology? Political feminism, gender theory, and historical revision. Antiquity 65:495-501.

4. Hayden, B. 1992 Observing prehistoric women. In Exploring Gender through Archaeology, pp. 33-48.

5. Nixon, L. 1994 Gender bias in archaeology, in L.J. Archer, S. Fischler and M. Wyke (eds) Women in Ancient Societies, pp. 1-23. London: Macmillan.

6. Wright, R.P. 1996 Introduction: Gendered ways of knowing in archaeology. In Gender and Archaeology, edited by R.P. Wright, pp. 1-22. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Weeks 3-4 "The Evolution of Man": Biological Perspectives
  Gero & Conkey: Chapter 3
  Nelson: Chapter 4

Additional reading:
1. Diamond, J. 1993 Sex and the female agenda. Discover Sept 1993 pp. 86-93.

2. Fedigan, L.M. 1986 The changing role of women in models of human evolution. Annual Review of Anthropology 15:25-66.

3. Hurcombe, L. 1995 Our own engendered species. Antiquity 69: 87-100.

4. Silk, J. 1993 Primatological perspectives on gender, in B. Miller (ed) Sex and Gender Hierarchies, pp. 212-235. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

5. Slocum, S.L. 1975 Woman the gatherer: male bias in anthropology, in R. R. Reiter (ed) Toward an Anthropology of Women, pp. 36-50. New York: Monthly Review Press.

6. Sperling, S. 1991 Baboons with briefcases vs. Langurs in lipstick: feminism and functionalism in primate studies, in M. DiLeonardo (ed) Gender at the Crossroads of Knowledge, pp. 204-234. Berkeley: University of California Press.

7. Zihlman, A.L. 1981 Women as shapers of the human adaptation, in F. Dahlberg (ed) Woman the Gatherer, pp. 75-120. New Haven: Yale University Press.

8. Zihlman, A.L. 1997 The Paleolothic glass ceiling: Women in human evolution, in L.D. Hager (ed) Women in Human Evolution, pp. 91-113.

Weeks 5-6 Desperately Seeking Models: The Archaeology of Gender and Ethnographic Analogy
  Gero & Conkey: Chapters 10 & 11
  Nelson: Chapter 3

Additional reading:
1. Bender, B. 1989 The roots of inequality, in D. Miller, M. Rowlands and C. Tilley (eds) Domination and Resistance, pp. 83-95. London: Unwin Hyman.

2. Draper, P. 1975 !Kung women: contrasts in sexual egalitarianism in foraging and sedentary contexts, in R.R. Reiter (ed) Toward an Anthropology of Women, pp. 77-109.

3. Meigs, A. 1990 Multiple gender ideologies and statuses, in P.R. Sanday and R.G. Goodenough (eds) Beyond the Second Sex, pp. 98-112. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

4. Mills, B.J. 1995 Gender and the reorganization of historic Zuni craft production: implications for archaeological interpretation. Journal of Anthropological Research 51:149-172.

5. Moore, H. 1988 Feminism and Anthropology Chapters 1 & 2. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

6. Peacock, N. 1991 Rethinking the sexual division of labor: reproduction and women's work among the Efe, in M. DiLeonardo (ed) Gender at the Crossroads of Knowledge, pp. 339-360. Berkeley: University of California Press.

7. Whitehead, H. 1981 The bow and the burden strap: a new look at institutionalized homosexuality in Native North America, in S.B. Ortner and H. Whitehead (eds) Sexual Meanings: The Cultural Construction of Gender and Sexuality, pp. 80-115.

Weeks 7-8 Space and Gender: Settlement Evidence
  Gero & Conkey: Chapters 4 & 5
  Nelson: Chapter 6

Additional reading:
1. Chase, S. 1991 Polygyny, architecture and meaning, in D. Walde and N. Willows (eds) The Archaeology of Gender, pp. 150-158. Calgary: University of Calgary.

2. Guillen, A.C. 1993 Women, rituals and social dynamics at ancient Chalcatzingo. Latin American Antiquity 4:209-224.

3. Hendon, J. 1997 Women's work, women's space, and women's status among the Classic-Period Maya elite of the Copan Valley, in C. Claassen and R. Joyce (eds) Women in Prehistory: North America and Mesoamerica, pp. 33-46. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

4. Lyons, D. 1991 The construction of gender, time and space, in D. Walde and N. Willows (eds) The Archaeology of Gender, pp. 108-114. Calgary: University of Calgary.

5. Oyuela-Caycedo, A. 1991 Ideology and structure of gender spaces: the case of the Kaggaba Indians, in D. Walde and N. Willows (eds) The Archaeology of Gender, pp. 327-335.

6. Rautman, A. 1997 Changes in regional exchange relationships during the pithouse-to-pueblo transition in the American Southwest: Implications for gender roles, in C. Claassen and R. Joyce (eds) Women in Prehistory: North America and Mesoamerica, pp. 100-118. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

7. Yentsch, A. 1991 Access and space, symbolic and material, in historical archaeology, in D. Walde and N. Willows (eds) The Archaeology of Gender, pp. 252-262. Calgary: University of Calgary.

Weeks 9-10 "Sleep's Sister Death": Mortuary Ritual
  Nelson: Chapter 7

Additional reading:
1. Arnold, B. 1991 The deposed Princess of Vix: the need for an engendered European prehistory, in D. Walde and N. Willows (eds) The Archaeology of Gender, pp. 366-374. Calgary: University of Calgary.

2. Cohen, M. and S. Bennett 1993 Skeletal evidence for sex roles and gender hierarchies in prehistory, in B. Miller (ed) Sex and Gender Hierarchies, pp. 273-296. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

3. Eicher, J.B. and M.E. Roach-Higgins 1992 Definition and classification of dress: Implications for analysis of gender roles, in R. Barnes and J.B. Eicher Dress and Gender: Making and Meaning, pp. 8-28. Oxford: Berg.

4. Flannery, K. and J. Marcus 1994 On the perils of 'politically correct' archaeology. Current Anthropology 35(4):441-442 and McCafferty & McCafferty reply, pp. 442-445.

5. Hodder, I. 1991 Gender representation and social reality, in D. Walde and N. Willows (eds) The Archaeology of Gender, pp. 11-16. Calgary: University of Calgary.

6. McCafferty, S. and G. McCafferty 1994 Engendering Tomb 7 at Monte Alban. Current Anthropology 35(2):143-166.

7. Wilson, D. 1997 Gender, diet, health and social status in the Mississippian Powers Phase Turner Cemetery population. In Women in Prehistory, edited by R. Joyce and C. Claassen, pp. 119-135. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Weeks 11-12 Women's Work: Systems of Production
  Gero & Conkey: Chapters 6-9
  Nelson: Chapter 5

Additional reading:
1. Brown, J. 1970 A note on the division of labor by sex. American Anthropologist 72: 1073-8.

2. Buffalohead, P.K. 1983 Farmers, warriors, traders: a fresh look at Ojibway women. Minnesota History 48: 236-244.

3. Crown, P.L. and W.H. Wills 1995 Economic intensification and the origins of ceramic containers in the American Southwest, in W. Barnett and J. Hoops (eds) The Emergence of Pottery, pp. 241-254. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.

4. Estioko-Griffin, A. 1993 Daughters of the forest, in M. Womack and J. Marti (eds) The Other Fifty Percent, pp. 225-232. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press.

5. Hamann, B. 1997 Weaving and the iconography of prestige: the royal gender symbolism of Lord 5 Flower's/Lady 4 Rabbit's Family, in C. Claassen and R. Joyce (eds) Women in Prehistory, pp. 153-172. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

6. Pringle. H. 1998 New women of the Ice Age. Discover April 1998 pp. 62-69.

7. Rice, P. 1991 Women and prehistoric pottery production, in D. Walde and N. Willows (eds) The Archaeology of Gender, pp. 436-443. Calgary: University of Calgary.

8. Sassaman, K.E. 1992 Lithic technology and the hunter-gatherer sexual division of labor. North American Anthropologist 13(3): 249-263.

9. Spector, J. 1983 Male/female task differentiation among the Hidatsa: Toward the development of an archaeological approach to the study of gender, in P. Albers and B. Medicine (eds) The Hidden Half, pp. 77-99. Washington: University Press of America.

Weeks 13-14 Romancing the Goddess: "Feminist" Archaeology and the Public
  Nelson: Chapter 8

Additional reading:
1. Anthony, D. 1995 Nazi and eco-feminist prehistories: counter points in Indo-European archaeology, in P. Kohl and C. Fawcett (eds) Nationalism, Politics and the Practice of Archaeology, pp. 82-96. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

2. Barstow, A. 1978 The uses of archaeology for women's history: James Mellaart's work on the Neolithic Goddess at Catal Hüyük. Feminist Studies 45(3):7-17.

3. Diehl, J. 1991 The Neolithic mystique, Chapter 2 in Rethinking Ecofeminist Politics. Boston: Southend Press.

4. Eisler, R. 1988 Introduction, Chapters 1, 2 and 13. The Chalice and the Blade: Our History, Our Future. New York: Harper & Row.

5. Fagan, B. 1992 A sexist view of prehistory. Archaeology 45(2):14-16, 66.

6. Grindell, B. 1993 Rewriting the past to save the future: a review of "The Chalice and the Blade: Our History, Our Future". Arizona Anthropologist 10:119-129.

7. Meskell, L. 1995 Goddesses, Gimbutas and 'New Age' archaeology. Antiquity 69: 74-86.

8. Nicholas, G. 1994 On the Goddess myth and methodology. Current Anthropology 35(4): 448-49.

9. Stone, M. 1976 Preface, Intro., Ch. 1. When God was a Woman. New York: Dorset Press.

Week 15 "Indiana Joans": Women in Archaeology
  Gero & Conkey: Chapters 12-14 and Epilogue
  Nelson: Chapter 9

Additional reading:
1. Brown, S. 1993 Feminist research in archaeology: What does it mean? Why is it taking so long? in N.S. Rabinowitz and A, Richlin (eds) Feminist Theory and the Classics, pp. 238-71. New York: Routledge.

2. Gero, J. & D. Root 1990 Public presentation and private concerns: archaeology in the pages of National Geographic. In The Politics of the Past, edited by P. Gathercole & D. Lowenthal, pp. 19-37. New York: Routledge.

3. Jones, S. 1991 The female perspective. Museums Journal 91(2):24-27.

4. Jones, S. & S. Pay 1990 The legacy of Eve. In The Politics of the Past, edited by P. Gathercole & D. Lowenthal, pp. 160-169. New York: Routledge.

5. Parezo, N. and S. Bender 1994 From glacial to chilly climate: a comparison between archeology and socio-cultural anthropology, in M.C. Nelson, S.M. Nelson and A. Wylie (eds) Equity Issues for Women in Archaeology, pp. 73-81. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 5.

6. Reyman, J. 1994 Gender and class in archaeology: then and now, in M.C. Nelson, S.M. Nelson and A. Wylie (eds) Equity Issues for Women in Archaeology, pp. 83-90. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 5.

7. Wylie, A. 1994 The trouble with numbers: workplace climate issues in archaeology, in M.C. Nelson, S.M. Nelson and A. Wylie (eds) Equity Issues for Women in Archaeology, pp. 65-71. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 5.

 
© 2000 Bettina Arnold, Dept. of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Design: Homer Hruby, Last Updated: January 24, 2000