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Anthropology 942
Seminar in Prehistory and Archaeology: Archaeology of Gender

Spring 2007


Would that be matrilocal or patrilocal, professor?

  M, 5:30-8:10, SAB 149
Office: SAB 229 Tel: 229-4583
HOURS: M 11:00-12:00 T 3:00-4:00 or by appointment
E-mail: barnold@.uwm.edu
Website: http://www.uwm.edu/~barnold/

Course Description: This course is a graduate-level review of approaches to gender in anthropological and archaeological research over the past two decades. We will examine the archaeology of gender from methodological, theoretical, and historical perspectives. How can we recognize gender archaeologically? What can archaeology contribute to theoretical discussions related to gender in the social sciences and humanities? What are the political implications of gender studies? Is an "ungendered" archaeology possible? The course will focus on the interdisciplinary implications of such questions in archaeology against a backdrop of a more general examination of anthropological theories gender roles, gender ideology and gender politics.

Readings: There are three primary textbooks for this course:

Graham Davies, Sharyn (2007), Challenging Gender Norms: Five Genders among the Bugis in Indonesia. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Nelson, Sarah Milledge (2006), Handbook of Gender in Archaeology. New York: Altamira Press.
Sørenson, Marie Louise Stig (2000), Gender Archaeology. Oxford: Polity.

Supplementary readings on e-Reserve: http://www.uwm.edu/Library/.

Evaluation and Grading:
  1. Four critical article summaries: 20% of the course grade.
  2. One short paper (10 pages minimum): 25% of the course grade. Important: Papers are always due the week before the oral presentation on that topic. Penalty for late papers: One full point per day.
  3. Final paper (20 pages minimum): 40% of the course grade.
  4. Oral Presentation: 10% of the course grade.
  5. Participation: 5% of the course grade.

Topics and Paper/Presentation Due Dates

Weeks 1-2 Definitions, Concepts and Historical Perspectives on Sex and Gender
January 22  
January 29  

Weeks 3-4 The Evolution of "Man": Biological Perspectives
February 5  
February 12  

Weeks 5-6 "Desperately Seeking Models": Ethnographic Analogy
February 19  
February 26 Final Paper Topics and Preliminary Bibliography Due!

Weeks 7-8 Space and Gender: Forest, Field, House, Village, City
March 5 Group 1 Papers Due
March 12 Group 2 Papers Due; Group 1 Presentation

Week 9 Spring Break: No Class!

Weeks 10-11 "Sleep's Sister Death": Bioarchaeology and Mortuary Ritual
March 26 Group 3 Papers Due; Group 2 Presentation
April 2 Group 4 Papers Due; Group 3 Presentation

Weeks 12-13 "Women's Work": Gender and Systems of Production
April 9 Group 4 Presentation
April 16  

Weeks 14-15 "Romancing the Goddess": Feminist Archaeology and the Public
April 23 Final Paper Drafts Due!
April 30

Week 16 "Indiana Joans": Women in Archaeology
May 7  

Week 17 Final Paper Due May 14 by 5pm!


Readings Assignments:

All additional readings are available in the Bolton Hall Anthropology Reading Room unless otherwise indicated!

Weeks 1-2 Definitions & Concepts/Historical Perspectives
  Davies: Challenging Gender Norms
  Nelson: Introduction; Chapters 1 and 9
  Sørenson: Chapters 1-2

Additional reading (on e-Reserve)
  1. Claassen, C. 1992 Questioning gender: an introduction. In Exploring Gender through Archaeology, edited by C. Claassen, pp. 1-9. Madison: Prehistory Press.

  2. Conkey, M.W. and J.D. Spector 1984 Archaeology and the study of gender. Archaeological Method and Theory 7:1-38. New York: Academic Press.

  3. Dobres, M.-A. 1988 Feminist archaeology and inquiries into gender relations: some thoughts on universals, origin stories and alternative paradigms. Archaeological Review from Cambridge 7(1):30-44.

  4. Gilchrist, R. 1991 Women's archaeology? Political feminism, gender theory, and historical revision. Antiquity 65:495-501.

  5. Hayden, B. 1992 Observing prehistoric women. In Exploring Gender through Archaeology, pp. 33-48.

  6. Nixon, L. 1994 Gender bias in archaeology, in L.J. Archer, S. Fischler and M. Wyke (eds) Women in Ancient Societies, pp. 1-23. London: Macmillan.

  7. Ortner, S. 1974 Is female to male as nature is to culture? In Women, Culture, and Society, M. Zimabalist Rosaldo and L. Lamphere (eds), pp. 67-87. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

  8. Pyburn, K.A. 2004 Introduction: Rethinking complex society, in K.A. Pyburn (ed.) Ungendering Civilization, pp. 1-46. London and New York: Routledge.

  9. Wright, R.P. 1996 Introduction: Gendered ways of knowing in archaeology. In Gender and Archaeology, edited by R.P. Wright, pp. 1-22. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

  10. Weil, E. 2006 What if it's (sort of) a boy and (sort of) a girl? New York Times Magazine September 24, 2006, pp. 50-53.

  11. Wylie, A. 1992 The interplay of evidential constraints and political interests: recent archaeological research on gender. American Antiquity 52:15-35.

Weeks 3-4 The Evolution of "Man": Biological Perspectives
  Nelson: Chapters 11, 12 and 14
  Sørenson: Chapters 3 and 10

Additional reading:
  1. Diamond, J. 1993 Sex and the female agenda. Discover Sept 1993 pp. 86-93.

  2. Fedigan, L.M. 1986 The changing role of women in models of human evolution. Annual Review of Anthropology 15:25-66.

  3. Hurcombe, L. 1995 Our own engendered species. Antiquity 69: 87-100.

  4. Kuhn, S.L. and M.C. Stiner 2006 What's a mother to do? The division of labor among Neandertals and modern humans in Eurasia. Current Anthropology 47(6):953-980.

  5. Silk, J. 1993 Primatological perspectives on gender, in B. Miller (ed) Sex and Gender Hierarchies, pp. 212-235. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  6. Slocum, S.L. 1975 Woman the gatherer: male bias in anthropology, in R. R. Reiter (ed) Toward an Anthropology of Women, pp. 36-50. New York: Monthly Review Press.

  7. Sperling, S. 1991 Baboons with briefcases vs. Langurs in lipstick: feminism and functionalism in primate studies, in M. DiLeonardo (ed) Gender at the Crossroads of Knowledge, pp. 204-234. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  8. Wylie, A. 1997 Good science, bad science or science as usual? Feminist critiques of science, in L.D. Hager (ed.) Women in Human Evolution, pp. 29-55. London and New York: Routledge.

  9. Zihlman, A.L. 1981 Women as shapers of the human adaptation, in F. Dahlberg (ed) Woman the Gatherer, pp. 75-120. New Haven: Yale University Press.

  10. Zihlman, A.L. 1997 The Paleolithic glass ceiling: Women in human evolution, in L.D. Hager (ed) Women in Human Evolution, pp. 91-113. London and New York: Routledge.

Weeks 5-6 Desperately Seeking Models: The Archaeology of Gender and Ethnographic Analogy
  Nelson: Chapters 2, 8, 13
  Sørenson: Chapters 4 and 9

Additional reading:
  1. Bender, B. 1989 The roots of inequality, in D. Miller, M. Rowlands and C. Tilley (eds) Domination and Resistance, pp. 83-95. London: Unwin Hyman.

  2. Draper, P. 1975 !Kung women: contrasts in sexual egalitarianism in foraging and sedentary contexts, in R.R. Reiter (ed) Toward an Anthropology of Women, pp. 77-109.

  3. Luedke, T. 2004 70. Gender and agency in economic models of Great Zimbabwe, in K.A. Pyburn (ed.) Ungendering Civilization, pp. 47-. London and New York: Routledge.

  4. Meigs, A. 1990 Multiple gender ideologies and statuses, in P.R. Sanday and R.G. Goodenough (eds) Beyond the Second Sex, pp. 98-112. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

  5. Mills, B.J. 1995 Gender and the reorganization of historic Zuni craft production: implications for archaeological interpretation. Journal of Anthropological Research 51:149-172.

  6. Moore, H. 1988 Feminism and Anthropology Chapters 1 & 2. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

  7. Pate, L. 2004 The use and abuse of ethnographic analogies in interpretations of gender systems at Cahokia, in K.A. Pyburn (ed.) Ungendering Civilization, pp. 71-93. London and New York: Routledge.

  8. Peacock, N. 1991 Rethinking the sexual division of labor: reproduction and women's work among the Efe, in M. DiLeonardo (ed) Gender at the Crossroads of Knowledge, pp. 339-360. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  9. Robin, C. 2006 Gender, farming and long-term change: Maya historical and archaeological perspectives. Current Anthropology 47(3): 409-433.

  10. Whitehead, H. 1981 The bow and the burden strap: a new look at institutionalized homosexuality in Native North America, in S.B. Ortner and H. Whitehead (eds) Sexual Meanings: The Cultural Construction of Gender and Sexuality, pp. 80-115.


Weeks 7-8 Space and Gender: Settlement Evidence
  Nelson: Chapters 5, 6 and 10
  Sørenson: Chapter 8

Additional reading:
  1. Chase, S. 1991 Polygyny, architecture and meaning, in D. Walde and N. Willows (eds) The Archaeology of Gender, pp. 150-158. Calgary: University of Calgary.

  2. Galloway, P. 1997 Where have all the menstrual huts gone? The invisibility of menstrual seclusion in the late prehistoric southeast, in C. Claassen and R. Joyce (eds) Women in Prehistory: North America and Mesoamerica, pp. 47-62. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

  3. Guillen, A.C. 1993 Women, rituals and social dynamics at ancient Chalcatzingo. Latin American Antiquity 4:209-224.

  4. Hendon, J. 1997 Women's work, women's space, and women's status among the Classic-Period Maya elite of the Copan Valley, in C. Claassen and R. Joyce (eds) Women in Prehistory: North America and Mesoamerica, pp. 33-46. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

  5. Oyuela-Caycedo, A. 1991 Ideology and structure of gender spaces: the case of the Kaggaba Indians, in D. Walde and N. Willows (eds) The Archaeology of Gender, pp. 327-335.

  6. Rautman, A. 1997 Changes in regional exchange relationships during the pithouse-to-pueblo transition in the American Southwest: Implications for gender roles, in C. Claassen and R. Joyce (eds) Women in Prehistory: North America and Mesoamerica, pp. 100-118. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

  7. Sweely, T.L. 1999 Gender, space, people and power at Cerén, El Salvador, in T.L. Sweely (ed.) Manifesting Power: Gender and the Interpretation of Power in Archaeology, pp. 155-172. London and New York: Routledge.

  8. Whitridge, P. 2002 Gender, households, and the material construction of social difference: metal consumption at a classic Thule whaling village, in L. Frink, R.S. Shepard and G.A. Reinhardt (eds) Many Faces of Gender: Roles and Relationships through Time in Indigenpus Northern Communities, pp. 165-194. Boulder: University Press of Colorado.

  9. Yentsch, A. 1991 Access and space, symbolic and material, in historical archaeology, in D. Walde and N. Willows (eds) The Archaeology of Gender, pp. 252-262. Calgary: University of Calgary.


Weeks 9-10 "Sleep's Sister Death": Bioarchaeology and Mortuary Ritual
  Nelson: Chapters 3, 4 and 7
  Sørenson: Chapters 5 and 7

Additional reading:
  1. Arnold, B. 1991 The deposed Princess of Vix: the need for an engendered European prehistory, in D. Walde and N. Willows (eds) The Archaeology of Gender, pp. 366-374. Calgary: University of Calgary.
  2. Baxter, J.E. 2005 Ch. 7 Socialization, childhood and mortuary remains, in J.E. Baxter The Archaeology of Childhood, pp. 93-108. Walnut Creek: AltaMira.

  3. Cohen, M. and S. Bennett 1993 Skeletal evidence for sex roles and gender hierarchies in prehistory, in B. Miller (ed) Sex and Gender Hierarchies, pp. 273-296. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  4. Crass, B. 2001 Gender and mortuary analysis: what can grave goods really tell us? In B. Arnold and N.L. Wicker (eds) Gender and the Archaeology of Death, pp. 105-118. Walnut Creek: AltaMira.

  5. Effros, B. 2003 Ch. 3 Grave goods and the ritual expression of identity, in B. Effros Merovingian Mortuary Archaeology and the Making of the Early Middle Ages, pp. 119-173. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  6. Flannery, K. and J. Marcus 1994 On the perils of 'politically correct' archaeology. Current Anthropology 35(4):441-442 and McCafferty & McCafferty reply, pp. 442-445.

  7. McCafferty, S. and G. McCafferty 1994 Engendering Tomb 7 at Monte Alban. Current Anthropology 35(2):143-166.

  8. O'Gorman, J. 2001 Life, death and the longhouse: a gendered view of Oneota social organization, in B. Arnold and N.L. Wicker (eds) Gender and the Archaeology of Death, pp. 23-50. Walnut Creek: AltaMira.

  9. Storey, R. 1999 The mothers and daughters of a patrilineal civilization: the health of females among the Late Classic Maya of Copan, Honduras, in A.L. Grauer and P. Stuart-Macadam (eds) Sex and Gender in Paleopathological Perspective, pp. 133-148. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  10. Sullivan, L. 2001 Those men in the mounds: gender, politics and mortuary practices in late prehistoric eastern Tennessee, in J.M. Eastman and C.B. Rodning (eds) Archaeological Studies of Gender in the Southeastern United States, pp. 101-126. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

  11. Wilson, D. 1997 Gender, diet, health and social status in the Mississippian Powers Phase Turner Cemetery population. In Women in Prehistory, edited by R. Joyce and C. Claassen, pp. 119-135. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Weeks 12-14 Women's Work: Systems of Production
  Nelson: Chapters 15, 16, 17
  Sørenson Chapter 6

Additional reading:
  1. Bird, D. and R. Blige Bird 2000 The ethnoarchaeology of juvenile foragers: shellfishing strategies among Meriam children. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 19:461-476.

  2. Brown, J. 1970 A note on the division of labor by sex. American Anthropologist 72: 1073-8.

  3. Buffalohead, P.K. 1983 Farmers, warriors, traders: a fresh look at Ojibway women. Minnesota History 48: 236-244.

  4. Crown, P.L. and W.H. Wills 1995 Economic intensification and the origins of ceramic containers in the American Southwest, in W. Barnett and J. Hoops (eds) The Emergence of Pottery, pp. 241-254. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.

  5. Estioko-Griffin, A. 1993 Daughters of the forest, in M. Womack and J. Marti (eds) The Other Fifty Percent, pp. 225-232. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press.

  6. Hamann, B. 1997 Weaving and the iconography of prestige: the royal gender symbolism of Lord 5 Flower's/Lady 4 Rabbit's Family, in C. Claassen and R. Joyce (eds) Women in Prehistory, pp. 153-172. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

  7. Peterson, J. 2002 Ch. 1 An investigation of labor patterns, in J. Peterson Sexual Revolutions: Gender and Labor at the Dawn of Agriculture, pp. 1-10. Walnut Creek: AltaMira.

  8. Rice, P. 1991 Women and prehistoric pottery production, in D. Walde and N. Willows (eds) The Archaeology of Gender, pp. 436-443. Calgary: University of Calgary.

  9. Sassaman, K.E. 1992 Lithic technology and the hunter-gatherer sexual division of labor. North American Anthropologist 13(3): 249-263.

  10. Spector, J. 1983 Male/female task differentiation among the Hidatsa: Toward the development of an archaeological approach to the study of gender, in P. Albers and B. Medicine (eds) The Hidden Half, pp. 77-99. Washington: University Press of America.

  11. Wright, R.P. 1996 Technology, gender and class: worlds of difference in Ur III Mesopotamia, in R.P. Wright (ed.) Gender and Archaeology, pp. 79-110. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.


Weeks 15 Romancing the Goddess: "Feminist" Archaeology and the Public
  Nelson: Chapter 8

Additional reading:
  1. Anthony, D. 1995 Nazi and eco-feminist prehistories: counter points in Indo-European archaeology, in P. Kohl and C. Fawcett (eds) Nationalism, Politics and the Practice of Archaeology, pp. 82-96. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  2. Barstow, A. 1978 The uses of archaeology for women's history: James Mellaart's work on the Neolithic Goddess at Catal Hüyük. Feminist Studies 45(3):7-17.

  3. Biehl, J. 1991 The Neolithic mystique, Chapter 2 in Rethinking Ecofeminist Politics. Boston: Southend Press.

  4. Eisler, R. 1988 Introduction, Chapters 1, 2 and 13. The Chalice and the Blade: Our History, Our Future. New York: Harper & Row.
  5. Fagan, B. 1992 A sexist view of prehistory. Archaeology 45(2):14-16, 66.

  6. Grindell, B. 1993 Rewriting the past to save the future: a review of "The Chalice and the Blade: Our History, Our Future". Arizona Anthropologist 10:119-129.

  7. Meskell, L. 1995 Goddesses, Gimbutas and 'New Age' archaeology. Antiquity 69: 74-86.

  8. Nicholas, G. 1994 On the Goddess myth and methodology. Current Anthropology 35(4): 448-49.

  9. Stone, M. 1976 Preface, Intro., Ch. 1. When God was a Woman. New York: Dorset Press.


Week 16 "Indiana Joans": Women in Archaeology
  Nelson: Chapters 18, 21, 22, 23
  Remaining Nelson chapters to be used for final papers and presentations

Additional reading:
  1. Brown, S. 1993 Feminist research in archaeology: What does it mean? Why is it taking so long? in N.S. Rabinowitz and A, Richlin (eds) Feminist Theory and the Classics, pp. 238-71. New York: Routledge.

  2. Claassen, C. (ed.) 1994 Women in Archaeology. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. (Volume on 2-day Reserve CC110 W66 1994).

  3. Gero, J. & D. Root 1990 Public presentation and private concerns: archaeology in the pages of National Geographic. In The Politics of the Past, edited by P. Gathercole & D. Lowenthal, pp. 19-37. New York: Routledge.

  4. Kehoe, A.B. and M.B. Emmerichs (eds) Assembling the Past: Studies in the Professionalization of Archaeology. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. (Volume on 2-day Reserve CC107 .A77 1999)

  5. Jones, S. 1991 The female perspective. Museums Journal 91(2):24-27.

  6. Jones, S. & S. Pay 1990 The legacy of Eve. In The Politics of the Past, edited by P. Gathercole & D. Lowenthal, pp. 160-169. New York: Routledge.

  7. Parezo, N. and S. Bender 1994 From glacial to chilly climate: a comparison between archeology and socio-cultural anthropology, in M.C. Nelson, S.M. Nelson and A. Wylie (eds) Equity Issues for Women in Archaeology, pp. 73-81. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 5.

  8. Reyman, J. 1994 Gender and class in archaeology: then and now, in M.C. Nelson, S.M. Nelson and A. Wylie (eds) Equity Issues for Women in Archaeology, pp. 83-90. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 5.

  9. White, N.M, L.P. Sullivan and R.A. Marrinan (eds) 1999 Grit-tempered: Early Women Archaeologists in the Southeastern United States. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. (Volume on 2-day Reserve CC110 .G75 1999)

  10. Wylie, A. 1994 The trouble with numbers: workplace climate issues in archaeology, in M.C. Nelson, S.M. Nelson and A. Wylie (eds) Equity Issues for Women in Archaeology, pp. 65-71. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 5.


 
© 2000 Bettina Arnold, Dept. of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Design: Homer Hruby, Last Updated: January 20, 2007