University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Department of History
P.O. Box 413
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 USA
(414) 229-5767 (direct line)
Messages: (414) 229-4361 (History Department Office)
Office: Holton Hall, room 328
Office hours: Tuesdays 11 AM to 12 noon, and by appointment
Medieval social and economic history, with a focus on English urban history and archaeology, food and diet, and household technologies
MAPS, TOPOGRAPHY, and MISCELLANEOUS
|MEDIEVAL and EARLY MODERN COOKERY: RESOURCES||MEDIEVAL CULINARY TEXTS (500-1500)||EARLY MODERN CULINARY TEXTS (1500-1700)|
Courses taught in previous semesters:
(Western Civilization to 1500)
Western Civilization to 1500: Online Readings
192 (Life in a Medieval Castle)
History 192: Weekly discussion materials
History 192: Images
History 192: Online readings
History 203 (Early Middle Ages)
History 203: Weekly lecture outlines
History 203: some primary sources for research papers
History 204 (High Middle Ages)
History 204: weekly lecture outlines
History 204: some primary sources for research papers
371 (England, 1200-1250)
History 371 (England, 1200-1250): Weekly lecture outlines
History 371 (England, 1200-1250): Discussion materials
History 371 (England, 1200-1250): Selected correspondence of Ralph de Neville
(Seminar in European History: London to 1600)
Studies 721 (Food, Culture, and Power: The Role of Food in
Food, Culture, and Power: some historic menus
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Documenting Your History Paper This is my own four-page class handout. (For writing problems to avoid, see also my one-page list of writing tips and example of how not to write a paper.) For more detailed documentation manuals, try one of the following.
for Writing Papers My own short guide on how to
write and document a paper.
Chicago Manual of Style Online The full text of this
essential documentation and writing guide.
The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide Straightforward summary of basic citation formats. Examples of Notes are numbered; examples of bibliographical entries are unnumbered.
Chicago Style An easy-to-use guide to citation by the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Writing Center, based on The Chicago Manual of Style and Turabian's Manual for Writers.
Using Chicago Style to Cite and Document Sources
Documenting History Sources Using Chicago Style Diana Hacker's concise guide includes sample Notes, Bibliography entries, manuscript format, and a sample student paper documented in the Chicago style.
Chicago Manual of Style Citation Guide
in History Papers, by Maurice Crouse of the University of
Memphis. Based on Turabian's style manual. An excellent and very
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University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee's home page
Google search of University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee's Website Use Google's search engine to search UWM's Website.
UWM History Department's home page
Universities Worldwide Links to websites for more than 8500 colleges and universities around the world.
History Departments Around the World
in the Universities of the United Kingdom
Searchable database, provided by the Institute of Historical
Grants for Individuals: History Useful collection of links to granting bodies.
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Medieval Sources Bibliography Annotated bibliography of texts from the period c. 300-1500 — from private letters, wills, and household accounts to literary works, philosophical treatises, chronicles, court proceedings, church records, and a host of other documents — that were written in the Middle Ages and are now available in printed or online editions and translations. Includes links to online editions. Based at Fordham University.
The Labyrinth A comprehensive Web site for Medieval Studies. Based at Georgetown University.
The World Wide Virtual Library: History Numerous links to a wide variety of History and related Web sites worldwide.
World History Compass Links to History sites on the Web the world over. Very useful.
Archaeology Data Service catalogue Massive index of online archaeological resources, including:
ARCHway Online catalogue of archaeological journals in 20 UK research libraries.
CBA Occasional Papers Full-text electronic versions of Council for British Archaeology Occasional Papers.
Research Reports Full-text electronic versions of
out-of-print Council for British Archaeology research
and excavation reports.
ArchNet: World Wide Web Virtual Library for Archaeology A global virtual library for archaeology. Hosted by the Archaeological Research Institute at Arizona State University.
Resource Guide for Europe A virtual library
for European archaeology. In English and Dutch.
English Collection Collections of useful links on
British history, literature, government, media, culture.
of Delaware Library: Medieval and Renaissance Sites and
Sources Dozens of links to online resources.
Ménestrel (médiévistes sur l'internet: sources travaux références en ligne) A portal for medieval links and online resources. In French.
Société de l'Oriflamme Gateway to web sites on European medieval warfare.
für Realienkunde des Mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit
Links to databases of images, small-finds, and other research
materials that focus on daily life in the medieval and early
modern periods. Formerly based at the Austrian Academy of
Sciences (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, or ÖAW);
since 2012 at the Universität Salzburg. In German.
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Ingenta (formerly CARL
UnCover) Searchable database of tables of contents
of thousands of multidisciplinary journals,
1988-present. Searching the database is free, as is
subscribing to a Table of Contents service for selected
periodicals. Individual articles can be ordered by credit
card for electronic or fax delivery.
Library of Congress
Home page of the Library of Congress.
Library Catalogues Worldwide Very useful collection
of links, by the University of Queensland.
MELVYL Consolidated online catalogue of the University of California libraries. Superb.
Consolidated online catalogues of major British and Irish
university research libraries. Based at the University of
for Medieval Manuscripts and Painting Part of
Harvard College Library's valuable collection of links to online
resources concerning medieval art and architecture.
Bibliothek Online catalogues of German
research libraries and databanks, with links to some major
online library catalogues worldwide. Instructions
primarily in German. Click on "Alle Standorte" for widest
Alain Nadeau's collection of bibliographical references to more
than 37,000 medieval manuscripts in some 1,580 libraries
British Library: Manuscripts' Catalogue Searchable online catalogue of BL manuscripts. To search for online images from the library's holdings, click here on British Library Images Online .
British Library: New catalogue of Cotton MSS Compiled by Dr Nigel Ramsay in 1990-97 to supplement and update the original Cotton MSS catalogue published by Joseph Planta in 1801. Includes a partial bibliography of publications of manuscripts in the collection.Bodleian Library, Oxford: Western Manuscripts to c. 1500 Describes the Bodleian's collections of pre-1500 Western manuscripts. For a few collections (e.g., MSS Lat.), there is an online handlist of manuscripts; for most collections, there are merely references to printed catalogues and a brief history of the collection.
Internetquellen zu Handschriften, Inkunabeln, Nachlässen, Alten Drucken Alessandra Sorbello Staub's valuable collection of links to Internet sources on medieval manuscripts and early printed books.
Bodleian Library, Oxford: Images from Manuscripts Browsable selection of images, 11th-17th cent., arranged by century and country of origin.
Early Manuscripts at Oxford University A selection of medieval and early modern manuscripts, scanned from the collections of the Bodleian Library and of six college libraries.
catalogues of Cambridge University libraries
Includes separate catalogues for CUL and individual college
and Modern Thought Digitization Project This
project, based at Stanford University, is digitizing a
wide range of printed sources, including some of the catalogues
of manuscripts in Oxford and Cambridge college libraries.
Vatican Library Home page of the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. Includes an online catalogue (in Italian and English) of both manuscripts and printed books.
LibDex Alphabetical index to libraries around the world.
libraries containing pre-1600 manuscripts Lists
of institutions in Canada, the US, and Puerto Rico that own
pre-1600 manuscripts. (This valuable website of the UMCC
[Uncatalogued Manuscripts Control Center] disappeared with AOL,
but an archived version is available at:
Medieval manuscripts in North America: changes in ownership Collections that have changed hands since the publication of de Ricci's Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada and the Supplement by Faye and Bond. Posted by the Uncatalogued Manuscript Control Center (formerly known as the Union Manuscript Computer Catalogue). (This valuable website of the UMCC disappeared with AOL, but an archived version is available at: http://web.archive.org/web/20070610141405/members.aol.com/dericci/umcc/newlocations.htm. See also the archived pages from the same website of private collections in De Ricci's Census and Faye and Bond's Supplement, and untraced manuscripts.)
C. W. Dutschke, Guide To Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Huntington Library Online version of the Huntington's printed catalague, which describes 390 medieval and renaissance manuscripts in Latin script. In general, documents, fragments, and books in non-Latin script are excluded. For documentary material, see the printed Guide to British Historical Manuscripts in the Huntington Library (San Marino, 1982).
Lawrence J. Schoenberg Collection: Online catalogue The Lawrence J. Schoenberg Collection is a private library focusing on late medieval and early modern manuscripts.
Handschriftencensus Detailed handlist of medieval manuscripts in the German language, including information about modern editions. Arranged in alphabetical lists of authors/titles and repositories. In progress.
Druckgraphische Buchillustrationen des 15. Jh. Illustrations from 76 German incunabula, searchable by volume (results in German only) and by topical alphabetical index (in both German and English).
Resource Guide for Medieval Studies Excellent bibliographic guide to print and online resources, from Saint Louis University.Repertorium Chronicarum: A Bibliography of the Manuscripts of Medieval Latin Chronicles This project, directed by Dan Embree, attempts to record the location of every known manuscript of every known Latin chronicle of the Middle Ages. Searchable by author, title, city, and library. In progress.
Royal Historical Society, consolidated Annual Bibliographies of British and Irish History More than 445,00 entries.
The Urban Past: An International Urban History Bibliography Organized by period and country, from the ancient world to the present. From the University of Guelph.
A Basic Bibliography in Medieval History From Columbia University Library.
History theses in the UK Searchable database of completed and in-progress doctoral theses and M.A. dissertations at universities in the UK, provided by the Institute of Historical Research.
Theses Canada Search AMICUS, Canada's national online catalogue, for bibliographic records of all theses in the National Library of Canada theses collection (established 1965); access for free the full-text electronic versions of Canadian theses and dissertations that were published from the beginning of 1998 to August 31, 2002.
History dissertations in progress, US and Canada Searchable database of doctoral dissertations completed and in progress at American and Canadian universities. Useful but incomplete.
Finding Dissertations and Theses in History A brief guide.
British record societies' publications since 1982 Manuscript sources published by British record societies since the appearance of E. L. C. Mullins, Texts and Calendars II: An Analytical Guide to Serial Publications 1957-1982 (Royal Historical Society Guides and Handbooks no. 12, 1983).
Bibliography of Roman, medieval and early modern wills and probate inventories Word-searchable bibliography of printed wills and inventories and testamentary studies, alphabetized by title, rather than author. Covers Western Europe.
Stuart Jenks's Magazine Stacks Searchable collection of tables of contents of dozens of German and English medieval history journals, covering thousands of volumes. An outstanding resource.
Internet Library of Early Journals Searchable,
browsable collection of 18th- and 19-century English journals,
including The Gentleman's Magazine and Notes and
English Medieval Legal Documents, AD 600- AD 1535: A Compilation of Published Sources A collaborative database on the published sources of English medieval legal documents, with links to online sources. At the University of Southern California.
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The National Archives, London On 2 April 2003 the Public Record Office, the Historic Manuscripts Commission, and the National Register of Archives merged to form a new organization: The National Archives. Click here for an alphabetical index of the former PRO's Information Leaflets .
Repositories of Primary Sources and Additional Lists of the same. Thousands of repositories of manuscripts, archives, rare books, historical photographs, and other collections of primary sources around the world.
Monastic Archives Research project
seeking to reconstruct the archives of every medieval English
monastery, and to elucidate the origins of record-keeping in
England. Based at University College London, and directed
by Professor David d'Avray. In progress.
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Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004) Online version of the newly-revised and updated DNB, containing some 50,000 British biographies from earliest times to the year 2000. Searching can by done by subscribers only, but there are free trial subscriptions available for institutions.
of National Biography: Index and Epitome By
Sidney Lee (1903). An index and summary version of the 63
original volumes and 3 supplement volumes of the first edition
of the DNB.
Directory of Royal Genealogical Data A massive database of everyone linked by blood or marriage to the British royal family, from earliest times to the present. Contains more than 30,000 entries, in effect covering most of the royal houses of Europe. Although individual entries are not documented, the site includes a lengthy bibliography of sources consulted.
Peerage.com Valuable, fully-documented database of the
peerage of Britain and the royal families of Europe.
Peerage of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
text of the 22nd edn (1838), edited by William Courthope.
Some corrections and additions to the Complete Peerage Compiled by Chris Phillips since the publication by Peter Hammond in 1998 of a volume of addenda and corrigenda to the Complete Peerage.
Généalogies Royales et Princières Genealogical database of the French royal family and of the princely and ducal families that descended from St. Louis, and of various modern royal and princely families. In French.
Database of the Higher Nobility in Europe Instructions provided in various languages, including English.
the Garter (1348-present) A chronological
list. See also Knights
of the Garter (1348-1488).
Members of Parliament, 1386-1421 From the "History of Parliament Online," with MP biographies from The History of Parliament: The House of Commons 1386-1421, ed. J. S. Roskell, L. Clark, and C. Rawcliffe (1993).
Soldier in Later Medieval England Searchable
databases (muster rolls, letters of protection, and Normandy
garrison) of soldiers who served (or intended to serve) in the
English forces of the Hundred Years' War between 1369 and 1453.
probate records Useful collection of links to
medieval British probate records.
of Wills Proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury
J. Challenor C. Smith, 4 vols. (British Record Society, vols.
10, 11, 18, 25, 1893-1901): vol.
1 (1383-1558, A-J); vol.
2 (1383-1558, K-Z); vol 3
Testamenta Vetusta (index of testators) Index of the 807 English wills, dating from the 12th century to the 16th century, that were edited by Nicholas Harris Nicolas in 1826.
& Tudor Kent P.C.C. & C.C.C. Wills These
wills were transcribed by Leland Lewis Duncan (1862-1923).
J. Furnivall, ed., Fifty Earliest English Wills in the
Court of Probate, London (English, 1387-1454)
Collection of London wills in English, 1387-1439, with a
priest's will of 1454, proved in the Prerogative Court of the
Archbishop of Canterbury. Originally published in Early
English Text Society, Original Series, vol. 78, 1882 (rpt 1964).
Cambridge University Alumni, 1261-1900 Searchable biographical index, drawn from J. A. Venn's massive Alumni Cantabrigienses (1921).
Biographisch-Bibliographischen Kirchenlexikon 14,000-entry biographical dictionary in the fields of theology, history, literature, philosophy, pedagogy, music, and painting. Signed articles include useful literature surveys. In German.
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Medieval English Calendar Calendar calculator
by historical years (1001-1600) and by English regnal years
(William I-Elizabeth I, 1066-1603). Includes the
date of Easter for each year, and also Roman dates for each day
of each month (Kalends, Nones and Ides).
for any year Enter
the country and the year and this online calendar calculator
(which is at the website timeanddate.com)
will display the calendar, which includes the phases of the
calendars of the current year and upcoming years, and for a
world clock, see also calendar-365.com.
The Middle English Dictionary (2001) Online version of the recently-completed MED.
A Concise Dictionary of Middle English, from A.D. 1150 to 1580 Scanned version of the dictionary published by A. L. Mayhew and Walter W. Skeat in 1888.
OneLook Dictionary Search Simultaneously searches almost six million words in 963 dictionaries, including a number of foreign languages (but not Latin). Includes a "reverse dictionary" that allows the searcher to describe a concept, and then offers a list of words or phrases related to that concept. In English.
Ian Lancashire (ed.), Lexicons of Early Modern English (LEME) Searchable database of dictionaries and other lexical materials dating from 1480 to 1702. This project is the successor to the Early Modern English Dictionaries Database (EMEDD).
and Short, A Latin Dictionary (1879) A
searchable version of the famous Classical Latin
dictionary. Click here for an English-to-Latin
Du Cange, et
al., Glossarium mediae et
infimae latinitatis (Latin and French, 1883-7)
Ten-volume, nineteenth-century Latin-French edition of the
magnificent lexicon originally published in Latin by Charles du
Fresne, sieur Du Cange (d. 1688). Searchable online
version produced by France's École nationale des chartes.
F. Niermeyer, Medieval Latin Lexicon
(Latin, French, and English, 1976) Comprehensive
dictionary of medieval Latin, originally published (as Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus)
by Brill. In French and English. Subsequent printed
editions of Niermeyer's Lexicon
Minus have added German to the languages in which all
definitions are given.
Dictionnaire Latin-Français More than 46,000 entries. In Latin and French.
Latin Dictionary from Danish Sources
Searchable wordlist, from a Web site called Saxo
Grammaticus. The actual title reads: Vademecum in opus
Saxonis et alia opera Danica compendium ex indice verborum.
A revised and expanded version of the printed edition published
by the Anglo-Norman Text Society (1977-92). Made available
through the Anglo-Norman On-Line Hub, which also provides access
to Anglo-Norman source texts and related articles.
Lexis of Cloth and Clothing in Britain, c. 700-1450
(various medieval languages of Britain, 2006-present)
Valuable analytical corpus of medieval dress and
textiles terminology of the British Isles in the form of a
searchable database. Based at the University of
Lexique d'ancien français Online dictionary, compiled by Douglas C. Walker
REFLEX (Research in Early French Lexicography) Online collection of dictionaries compiled in France before 1500.
Dictionnaires d'autrefois Online editions of French dictionaries of the 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries.
Jean Nicot, Thresor de la langue francoyse, tant ancienne que moderne (French, 1606) An early French dictionary, searchable by headword.
Mittelhochdeutsche Wörterbücher Online Searchable online composite version of three dictionaries of Middle High German, together with an extra finding aid that includes vocabulary from religious and other texts not consulted by the dictionary editors. In German.
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and Conversion Tools The Internet Public
Library's collection of links to online calculators and
conversion tools for such things as weights, measures, Roman
numerals, and currencies.
Another collection of handy conversion tools, created by Lilly
Rowlett, A Dictionary of Units of Measurement
Extemely useful. Prof. Rowlett is the Director of the
Center for Mathematics and Science Education at the University
of North Carolia, Chapel Hill.
& Measures, Ancient and Modern, of Europe and Asia
Yields Database (1211-1491) The largest and most
precise database on pre-modern grain harvests currently
available internationally. Based on medieval English
manorial accounts (including the Bishopric of Winchester Pipe
Rolls), and assembled by Bruce Campbell from his own work and
that of other historians, especially Jan Titow and David
Farmer. Searchable bycrop, harvest year, manor, estate,
county, region, and any combination of the same. A
"Chronologies" facility also offers a valuable series of
reconstructed annual chronologies for each of the principal
crops and combinations of the same.
Streetmap Find any place in mainland Britain. Searchable by street, place name, post code, telephone code, Ordnance Survey coordinates, latitute/longitude, telephone code, etc.
Gazetteer of Markets and Fairs in England and Wales to 1516 Compiled by Samantha Letters.
Graesse's Orbis Latinus An online version of the dictionary of Latin place-names by J. G. Th. Graesse (1909).
Latin Place-Names A brief but useful list of modern equivalents of Latin place-names in early printed books. Searchable both in Latin-to-English and in English-to-Latin.
Historical Atlas of Europe, AD 1-2000 Christos Nüssli's site provides maps of Europe century-by-century.
Henry A. Harben, A Dictionary of London (1918) Online version of this scarce and very useful topographical dictionary of the City of London.
Sources for Building History A guide to researching historic buildings in the British Isles.
"History On-line" reference sites The Institute of
Historical Research's collection of online dictionaries,
directories, maps, encyclopedias, train timetables, and other
reference works, plus gateways to museums, libraries, and
Latin Vulgate Bible (Biblia Sacra
text of the Vulgate Bible (Douay-Rheims version of 1589-1609,
revised 1749-52), from an edition published in Baltimore in
of British History, 1066-1487 Includes brief
biographies of English kings.
Brass Society, Picture Library Online library of
medieval brasses, including engravings of brasses that no longer
survive. Searchable by name and by topic.
The Medieval Bestiary Excellent scholarly site on medieval bestiaries and on animals in the Middle Ages, including a topical encyclopedia, a digital text library, a handlist of important manuscripts, and a bibliography.
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Online Primary Document Collections Extensive collection of hyperlinks to online primary sources worldwide, provided by the library at California State University, San Marcos.
TEAMS Middle English Texts A large collection of important texts, both literary and historical, with excellent introductions, glosses, and scholarly apparatus.
The Middle English Collection at the Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Word-searchable collection of literary and historical sources, including Layamon's Brut, the Paston Letters (ed. Norman Davis, Part I), and an anthology of Chancery English, 1384-1462.
English Prose and Verse Large collection of
Middle English texts, including wills, cookbooks, Chancery
documents, gild regulations, surgical and conduct texts, and
Paston letters, as well as literary texts. Based at the
University of Michigan.
and Modern Thought Text Digitization Project This
project, based at Stanford University, is digitizing a wide
range of printed sources, including a number of volumes from the
Women's Latin Letters, 4th-13th cent. Latin letters
with modern English translations and scholarly apparatus.
(in Middle English) A selection of the 1450 sermons
published in A Repertorium of Middle English Prose
Jacques Paul Migne, ed., Patrologiae
Cursus Completus. Series Latina.
All 221 volumes of the PL.
Renascence Editions An online repository of works printed in English between the years 1477 and 1799 .
Gallica A vast online library of the cultural patrimony of France, drawn from the collections of the Bibliothèque nationale de France and of several major French museums, and comprising tens of thousands of historic texts, scholarly articles, images, sound archives, and other material. Texts of interest to English medievalists include chronicles and other sources edited by Thomas Duffus Hardy, Thomas Wright, and Henry Thomas Riley; Rymer's Foedera; etc. Click on "Recherche" to search the index. (Note that an asterisk can be used as a "wild card" to truncate search-terms.)
Literature of the French Middle Ages Numerous links to collections of texts and to related sites.
Online Medieval and
Classical Library (OMACL) Word-searchable collection
of full-text works of classical and medieval literature.
All except the Middle English texts are in modern English
EEBO: Early English Books Online Online index and full-text access to more than 125,000 titles listed in Pollard and Redgrave's A short-title catalogue of books printed in England, Scotland and Ireland, and of English books printed abroad, 1475-1640, Wing's continuation of Pollard and Redgrave (1641-1700), and the Thomason Tracts (1640-1661).
Dana F. Sutton, Library of Humanistic Texts, and Analytic Bibliography of On-Line Neo-Latin Texts Alphabetical hyperlinks to thousands of online texts and facsimiles. The focus is on "Latin texts written during the Renaissance and later," but these include numerous medieval texts as well. In progress.
Eurodocs: Primary Historical Documents from Western Europe Links to numerous texts, some in their original language, some in modern translation, some in both. Searchable by period and country. Very useful.
WWW Medieval Resources Medieval texts in their original languages.
Internet Medieval Sourcebook Thousands of medieval texts (most excerpted, some complete), mostly in modern English translation. An outstanding resource, created by Paul Halsall.
Source Material on the Internet Excellent collection
of links, from an English genealogy site.
Index to the
English Year Books, 1268-1535 Searchable
index to the printed Year Books, the law reports of medieval
England, by David J. Seipp. In progress.
Anglo-American Legal Tradition (AALT): English Court Records,
1216 - 1660 Digitized images of legal records,
mostly from the courts of Common Pleas, Exchequer, and King's
Bench, for select years. Outstanding resource, provided by
Robert C. Palmer by agreement with The National Archives. The TNA series currently licensed to the site and available in whole or
in part are CP40, CP25(1), KB26, KB27, KB29, E13, E159, E368, E123, E124,
E125, E126, JUST 1, C33, REQ1, CHES14, and DL5. A few other series
(including C1) are licensed but not yet begun. In
rolls of Ramsey, Hepmangrove, and Bury, 1268-1600
Calendar, in English, by Edwin DeWindt, of dozens of surviving
court rolls and the records of one eyre (1287) for the East
Midlands town of Ramsey, its suburb of Hepmangrove, and the
nearby village of Bury. An exceptional resource.
Taxatio Database of
England and Wales, 1291-2 Database of the very
detailed ecclesiastical tax assessment of England and Wales,
carried out in 1291-2 by order of Pope Nicholas IV. In
Carta (Latin, 1215) An English translation by Xavier
Hildegarde, with an online glossary.
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Paul Lacroix, Manners, Custom and Dress During the Middle Ages and During the Renaissance Period (in English translation, London and New York, ?1874)
Isidore of Seville (c. 560-636), Etymologiae, Book XX: De penu et instrumentis domesticis et rusticis (Latin, early 7th cent.) From the edition of Isidori Hispalensis Episcopi Etymologiarum sive Originum libri XX, ed. W. M. Lindsay (Oxford 1911). This final section of Isidore's etymological encyclopedia discusses tableware and kitchenware, other household furnishings, vehicles, farm and garden tools, and horse equipment.
Charlemagne, Capitulary De villis (Latin, early 9th cent.) In a modern English translation by James Harvey Robinson (1904).
Asnapium: An Inventory of One of Charlemagne's Estates (Latin, c. 811) In a modern English translation by Frederic Austin Ogg (1907).
Strabo, Hortulus (Latin, c. 842-848) A
Carolingian monk's description of his garden. This website
provides the original Latin text with a clickable modern German
translation; the text can be searched for references to
individual plants or can be read straight through.
Dental hygiene recipes from a variety of sources (11th-17th cent.) Eleven recipes for mouthwashes, teeth-whiteners, breath-fresheners, and toothpastes, in modern English translation.
Pisano (trans.), Liber de vindemiis (Latin, 2nd half
of 12th cent.) Latin translation of a Greek treatise
on harvesting grapes, winemaking, and the care and emendation of
wine, by a Pisan who spent several years in
Constantinople. Edited by Francesco Buonamici in Annali
Toscane, 28 (1908).
Roll of the Bishopric of Winchester (1208-9) (Latin), ed.
Hubert Hall (1903); and The
Roll of the Bishopric of Winchester (1210-11) (Latin), ed.
N. R. Holt (1873). Read these entire volumes, or click
here for an English
translation of the entry for the manor of Downton, Wiltshire
(1208-9) from Roy C.
Cave & Herbert H. Coulson, A Source Book for Medieval Economic History (1936; rpt 1965).
d'Andeli, La bataille des vins (French, early 13th
cent.) Poem describing the respective merits of
various wines (Ms. Paris, B.N. fr. 837, ff. 231-232v; and Ms.
Berne, Bibliothèque municipale, 113, f. 200v) From the
edition by H. Héron (1881). Click here for a partial
translation into modern French, by Bernard Gineste.
John of Garland, Dictionarius (Latin,
early 13th cent.) Not a household or conduct text, but a manual for
teaching Latin, by John of Garland, an English
teacher of Latin grammar in Paris. He wrote it sometime
between 1218 and 1229, mostly in the form of a walking-tour of
Paris, and it contains numerous references to shops and vendors
of all kinds, including food-sellers, as well as descriptions of
household furnishings. Garland added a commentary with
French glosses around 1229-30 while in Toulouse. The Latin
text here is based on the edition by Thomas Wright in A Volume of Vocabularies
(1857), with a modern English translation by Barbara Blatt
cent.) Sample letters from the extensive surviving
correspondence of Ralph de Neville (d. 1244), Bishop of
Chichester and Chancellor of Henry III, in the English
translations published by W. H. Blaauw in 1850, and with
some Latin transcriptions by Blaauw and by W. W. Shirley.
Among them are letters concerning the management of Neville's
estates and the provisioning of his houses. See also Additional
correspondence of Ralph de Neville.
Guillaume de la Villeneuve, Les crieries de Paris (French, 13th cent.) Poem recording the cries of the street-sellers of Paris, many offering raw and cooked foods (Ms. Paris, B.N. fr. 837, ff. 246-7). Original text, from the edition of E. Barbazan et D.Méon (1808), with a modern French translation by Madeleine Jeay. Click here for an online dictionary to this text and to other French poems of the 12th-16th centuries. (If the Hyperlistes site is unavailable, click here for another copy of the poem .)
Grosseteste's Rules (Anglo-Norman and Latin, 1240 x
1242) English translation by Elizabeth Lamond (in Walter
of Henley's Husbandry, 1890), of the household rule
written by Bishop Grosseteste for the widowed Countess of
Lincoln. Click here for another
L'ornement des dames/Ornatus mulierum (Anglo-Norman, 13th cent.) Extracts, in modern English translation, from a collection of beauty recipes (Bodleian Library, MS Ashmole 1470, ff. 276r-279v) edited by Pierre Ruelle (1967).
La bataille de Caresme et de Charnage (French, 13th cent.) Poem describing a 'battle' between Lent and Carnival (Paris, BnF Ms. Fr. 837, ff. 21-24). From the edition by Grégoire Lozinski (1933).
mercier (French, 13th cent.) Anonymous poem
describing a mercer's wares (Ms. Paris, BnF fr. 19152, f.
42v-43). Original text from the edition of Philippe Ménard
(1970), with a modern French translation by Madeleine Jeay.
Walter de Bibbesworth, Le Tretiz (Anglo-Norman, c. 1250-1300) A verse treatise on country life and household duties, designed to instruct English children ("beaus duz enfauns," line 183) in French vocabulary. Edited by William Rothwell (1990), from Cambridge University Library MS Gg. 1. 1.
Bonvesin de la Riva of Milan (c. 1240 - c. 1315), De quinquaginta curialitatibus ad mensam (Italian [Milanese], later 13th cent.) Click on "Les bonnes manières de table" for this extract from De la Riva's verse guide to table manners, in a modern French translation ("Les 50 contenances de table"). Click here and scroll down for the original text .Roman de la rose: Duenna's advice on table manners for young women (French, late 13th cent.) From Jean "Clopinel" de Meun's continuation of the poem by Guillaume de Lorris, in English translation by F. S. Ellis, The Romance of the Rose (1900).
De l'Oustillement au villain (French, 13th cent.) This anonymous poem (from Ms. Paris, B.N. fr. 837, fol. 119v) includes a description of the furnishings and utensils to be found in a peasant's house.
Walter of Henley (Anglo-Norman, late 13th cent.) English translation, from Elizabeth Lamond's edition (1890). Click here for another copy.
Seneschaucie (Anglo-Norman, late 13th cent.) English translation, from Elizabeth Lamond's edition (1890). Click here for another copy.
(Anglo-Norman, late 13th cent.) English
translation, from Elizabeth Lamond's edition (1890). Click
here for another
made by the executors of Eleanor of Castile, Queen of England
(Latin, 1291-1293) From the edition by T. H. Turner
in Manners and Household
Expenses of England in the Thirteenth and Fifteenth Centuries
The payments by Queen Eleanor's executors are on pp. 93-145.
expenses of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, 1313-14 (English, 1603)
From John Stow's Survay of London (2nd edn, 1603).
Antonio Pucci [c. 1310-1388], Proprietà di Mercato Vecchio (Italian, 14th cent.) Pucci's poem describes the offerings of the Old Market of Florence.
Geoffroi des Nés, La Desputoison du vin et de l'iaue (French, ?14th cent.) Poem on the relative merits of wine and water (Ms. Paris, BnF fr. 24432, ff. 26v-29), from the edition of Achille Jubinal (1839).
Account roll (compotus) of the manor of Presteigne (Latin, 1384-5) Includes a photograph and Latin transcription of the beginning of the roll, with a modern English translation.
Eustache Deschamps, Ballade 350 (French, late 14th cent.) Poem lamenting the unpleasant fare of Lent. Edited by Queux de Saint-Hilaire (1878), vol. 3, pp. 75-76, from MS. Paris, B.N. fr. 840, f.116. (If the above link does not work, click here for another copy of the text.)
Deschamps, Pour les nouveaulx mariez et de leur mesnage
(Ballade 1451, French, late 14th cent. )
Poem describing newlyweds' household goods and furnishings, ed. Gaston Raynaud (1891-1901), vol. VIII, pp. 137-38.
Some medieval English medical recipes (English, late 14th- early 15th cent.) A selection of heath and beauty recipes, from British Library, Harley MS 2378. Transcribed by Martha Carlin.
Ménagier of Paris: The art of gardening (French, c.
1393) English translation from Eileen Power's
influential but incomplete and now superseded edition (The
Goodman of Paris, 1928), pp. 195-204. (For
an authoritative English translation of the entire work, see The Good Wife's Guide (Le Menagier
de Paris): A Medieval Household Book, trans. Gina L.
Greco and Christine M. Rose (Cornell University Press, 2009).
roll of Richard II (French, 1398-9) Website
describing a detailed inventory of the English king's jewels and
plate, made at the very end of his reign.
Expenses of Aragonese ambassadors in England (Latin, 1415). Food, lodging and travel accounts, in English translation, from Analogues of Chaucer's Pilgrimage, ed. R. E. G. Kirk and F. J. Furnivall (1908), pp. 5-7.
A Generall rule to teche euery man that is willynge for to lerne . . . to serve a lorde or mayster (English, 15th cent.) How to serve meals in a great household, from British Library, MS Add. 37969, ff. 2-8, edited by R. W. Chambers (1914).
William Wey, What to bring on a sea-voyage to Jerusalem (English, 15th cent.) From The Itineraries of William Wey (1857).
of Joan Buckland, of Edgcott, Northamptonshire (English and
Latin, 1450) This is Document 1 in an online
collection of 63 wills from the diocese of Lincoln,
1450-1544. Buckland's will includes a detailed list of her
household effects. From Andrew Clark, ed., Lincoln
Diocese Documents, 1450-1544 (1914).
Urbanitatis (English, c.1460) Conduct manual for boys in verse, from the edition of Frederick J. Furnivall in The Babees Book (1868), pp. 13-15.
Russell, Book of Nurture (English, c. 1460)
Extract, in modern English translation, concerning the duties of
the panter, butler, and carver in a noble household. From
The Babees' Book: Medieval Manners for the Young: Done into
Modern English From Dr. Furnivall's Texts, by Edith
Household expenses of Sir John Howard, later Duke of Norfolk (English, 1462-1469) From the edition by T. H. Turner in Manners and Household Expenses of England in the Thirteenth and Fifteenth Centuries (1841). Howard's household accounts are on pp. 149-621.
la Marche, "Le service du vin," from L'état de la maison du
duc Charles de Bourgogne dit le Hardy (French, c.
1467-77.) Click on "Le service du vin selon
Olivier de la Marche" for a modern French translation by
Bruno Laurioux of this extract from De la Marche's Mémoires.
for making colored wax and ink (English, 15th cent.)
From Huntington Library, MS HM 1336.
Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York (English, March 1502 - March 1503); and Wardrobe Accounts of Edward IV (English, April - September 1480) Edited by Nicholas Harris Nicolas (1830).
The Little Children's Little Book (English, c. 1480) Guide to manners for boys, from The Babees Book, ed. Frederick J. Furnivall (1868), pp. 16-24.
Un dittié des choses qui faillent en menage et en mariage (French, ?15th cent.) Poem on the things that one needs in a household (Ms. Paris, BnF fr. 12483, ff. 217-218). Original text from the edition of Achille Jubinal (1842), with a modern French translation by Madeleine Jeay.
Watelet de tous mestiers (French, ?15th cent.) Poem on the various trades and crafts (Versailles, Bibliothèque municipale 4 Mi 162). Original text from the edition of Anatole de Montaiglon et James de Rothschild (1878), with a modern French translation by Madeleine Jeay.
The Babees' Book: Medieval Manners for the Young (English, 15th-16th cent.) The greater part of Furnivall's Babees Book and Queene Elizabethes Achademy, in a modern English translation by Edith Rickert and L. J. Naylor (1908).
"Ballad of a Tyrannical Husband" (English, 15th cent.) A farmer exchanges chores with his wife.
Les honneurs de la table (French, 1491) Photograph of a manuscript of the second of three known French verse guides to table manners, inserted into the end of a book of hours written in 1491. Paris, Département de manuscrits, Rothschild VI. 3. 6.
The Treatyse of Fishing with an Angle (English, 1496) The former attribution of this treatise to Dame Juliana Berners, c. 1456, is no longer tenable, since a fragment of the text survives in a manuscript of the mid 14th century. The modern English translation offered here includes illustrations of fishing rods and other fishing implements from Wynkyn de Worde's printed edition of 1496. Click here for a transcript of the edition of 1561 ; and here for another modern English translation.
Les Cris de Paris (French, c. 1500) Photographs of four of the collection of 18 colored woodcuts illustrating the cries of the street-sellers of Paris (Bibliothèque nationale de France, Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal, RES EST-264).The Boke of Kervynge (English, 1508) Treatise, printed by Wynkyn de Worde, on carving and serving food, with recipes for hippocras and sauces, seasonal menus, and the duties of various servants.
Inventory of John Asserby (English, 1527) From Andrew Clark, ed., Lincoln Diocese Documents, 1450-1544 (1914). (Click on "SIXTY-THREE LINCOLN DIOCESE DOCUMENTS" and either search for "Asserby" or scroll down to document XXIII.)
[John] Fitzherbert's Book of Husbandry (English, first
edition, 1523) A housewife's duties.
(For a similar extract from Fitzherbert,
of expenses of Sir John Nevile of Chete for his daughters'
weddings and at assizes (English, 1526-30) From
Samuel Pegge's edition of The
Forme of Curye (1780). Click here for a
description by Pegge of the rolls (pp.
163-164). The expenses are for: the wedding of
Nevile's daughter Mary to Gervas Clifton, 17 Jan. 1530 (pp.
165-170); the marriage of Nevile's daughter Elizabeth to
Roger Rockley, 14 Jan. 1526 (pp.
171-178); Sir John's expenses as sheriff of
Yorkshire at the Lent assizes, 19 Hen. VIII (pp.
179-182); and Sir John's expenses at the Lammas assizes,
20 Hen. VIII (pp.
of the anniversary feast of the Guild of the Holy Trinity,
Luton (English, 1527-8) From Samuel Pegge's
edition of The Forme of Curye
(1780), pp. 186-188.
Rhodes, The Boke of Nurture and Schoole of good manners
for man and for Chylde (English, 5th edn, 1577)
A courtesy book in verse by Hugh Rhodes, "of the Kinges Chappell"
Thomas Tusser, A hundreth good pointes of husbandrie (English, 1557) Guide for farmers and their wives, listing each month's labors.
New Year's gifts received by Queen Elizabeth I, 1561-1600 (English) Extracts from contemporary accounts, taken from John Nichols, ed., The Progresses and Public Processions of Queen Elizabeth (3 vols., 1823).
A London household's dinner conversation, from The French Schoolmaster (French and English, 1573) Excerpt from a French-English conversation manual, by Claudius Hollyband.
Manual de mujeres en el cual se contienen muchas y diversas recetas muy buenas (Spanish, 16th cent.) Contains culinary, medicinal, and household recipes. Click here for an English translation of a selection of the recipes.
Sir Thomas Cockaine, A Short Treatise of Hunting (English, 1591) How to hunt the fox, hare, roe, stag, buck, otter, and marten, with a brief description of signals to be sounded on the hunting horn.
Paul Hentzner, Description of Elizabeth I and her court at Greenwich in 1598 (Latin, 1612) This extract, translated into English, describes the queen, her reception of visitors, and how her meals were served. It is taken from Horace Walpole, ed., and Richard Bentley, trans., Paul Hentzner's Travels in England During the Reign of Queen Elizabeth (1797), pp. 33-37. Click here for the complete text of Hentzner's Travels in England, together with Sir Robert Naunton's Fragmenta Regalia (1797, rpt 1892).
"F.B.," Rules . . . For Children to Write By (English, 1611) Extract from a manual of penmanship, including recipes for making ink.
To Penshurst (English, c. 1616) Poem
praising the model household of the Sidneys at Penshurst Place,
Taylor, The Praise of
Hemp-Seed (English, 1630) Poem
examining the uses of hemp-seed and the trades and industries
that depended on its products, including those of the mercers,
grocers, vintners, drapers, haberdashers, tailors, skinners,
dyers, apothecaries, comfit-makers, sailors, shoemakers,
saddlers, and paper-makers.
Izaak Walton and Charles Cotton, The Compleat Angler (English, 1653 (Part I) and 1676 (Part II)
Thomas Barker, Barker's Delight: or, The Art of Angling (English, 1659) This is the second edition of Barker's work; according to the title page it is "much enlarged." The full title reads: BARKER'S DELIGHT: OR, THE ART OF A N G L I N G. Wherein are discovered many rare Secrets very necessary to be known by all that delight in that Recreation, both for catching the Fish, and dressing thereof.
Colonel Robert Venables, The Experienced Angler (English, 1662) The full title reads: The Experienced Angler: or Angling Improved. Being A general Discourse of Angling; Imparting many of the aptest wayes and choicest Experiments for the taking of most sorts of Fish in Pond or River.
Hannah Woolley, The Gentlewoman's Companion: or, A Guide to the Female Sex (English, 1675) Begins with chapters on the education and deportment of women, and follows with culinary recipes, medicinal recipes, advice to servants, model letters, and witty dialogues.
Mary Evelyn, The Ladies Dressing-Room Unlock'd (English, 1690) Delightful satire in verse of a guide to manners and fashion, including a glossary of terms concerning dress, by John Evelyn's daughter. The full title reads: The Ladies Dressing-Room Unlock'd, and Her Toilette Spread, Together, with a Fop-Dictionary, and a Rare and Incomparable Receipt to Make Pig, or Puppidog-Water for the Face.
Household Book of Lady Grisell Baillie, 1692-1733
by the Scottish Historical Society in 1911.
Return to Links
History Network An online research library and
network of historical culinary texts, dating from earliest times
to the year 1700. Includes a chronological list of
surviving texts. In progress.
Cookbooks Useful collection of links to webbed
versions of medieval culinary texts in their original languages
and in translation.
de cuisine en Europe médiévale A very
useful survey of medieval European culinary texts. Click
here for surveys of the texts arranged chronologically or by
or language . Part of a French food site called Maître
Foods of England project Aims to present "Every
traditional dish, every original receipt, every classic
cookbook." Currently includes cookbooks from c.
1390 to the 1960s, and thousands of individual recipes. In
of Medieval and Renaissance Culinary Terms Extremely
useful; in progress. Click here for a similar medieval
culinary glossary in Dutch (with English
translations), compiled by Ria Jansen-Sieben, Elly
Cockx-Indestege, and others. Click here for a very useful
glossary of medieval
Italian and English culinary terms .
Rothwell, Articles on Anglo-Norman food vocabulary
Online versions of articles originally published in linguistics
Library website on Medieval Food Part of a BL
website called "Books
for Cooks." Features photographs, transcriptions and
modern English translations of Middle English cookery
manuscripts in the library's collection, and descriptions of the
food of the period. See also the associated websites
Food, and 1900s
Food. Unfortunately, the transcriptions and
translations of the medieval texts are full of errors, and there
are similar errors in the transcriptions of the 16th-century
texts. No translations are provided to post-medieval
Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages An exceptionally useful online encyclopedia of herbs and spices. In English or German.
Spices in Medieval Europe Brief but useful discussion of the major medieval spices, with comments on their use in medieval recipe collections. Part of the "Maître Chiquart" Web site. In English.
John Munro, "The Consumption of Spices and Their Costs in Late-Medieval and Early-Modern Europe: Luxuries or Necessities?" Includes graphs on the prices of spices, and their affordability on a master craftsman's wages in 15th-century London.
foods Useful, fully-documented discussion of the
Viking diet and Viking cookery, with a few sample recipes
adapted for modern kitchens, by Christie Ward. In English.
Anthimus, De observatione ciborum (Latin, 6th cent.) Treatise on food and diet in the form of a letter addressed to Theuderic [I], king of the Franks, by a Greek physician resident at the court of Theodoric the Ostrogoth.
of St. Victor, Didascalicon, Book II, chap. 25, "On
Hunting" (Latin, 1120s) Although ostensibly on
hunting, this brief chapter in Hugh of St. Victor's encyclopedic
survey includes a more general essay on the various
classifications of food. In Latin.
Poitevin sauce recipes (Latin, c. 1150 x 1175) The discovery was announced in April 2013 of a small collection of recipes for "various kinds of Poitevin sauces" ("diuersa genera pictauiensium salsamentorum"). They were identified by Professor Faith Wallis of McGill University in a manuscript (MS 51, fol. 39r-v) now in Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and formerly owned (by 1391) by Durham Cathedral Priory. The culinary recipes are embedded within a collection of medical recipes (fols. 27r-46v). According to a brief article in Petits Propos Culinaires (PPC 98, August 2013), there are some ten sauce recipes in all, "for meats ranging from chicken, ‘hen in winter’, beef, duck, pork, ram (presumably a ‘wether’ or castrated male sheep), lamb, sausage and ‘tiny little fish [minuti pisculi]’. There is also a recipe for conserved ginger, with detailed instructions for preparation: soaking in water, cutting into slices, cooking down with honey, rubbing honey in by hand, and continuing the process with other flavourings including spikenard."
Regimen sanitatis Salerni (Latin, ?12th-13th cent.) Health and diet regimen, in verse. Click here for an English translation by Thomas Paynel (1535) . Click here for Sir John Harington's translation, The Englishmans Doctor (English, 1608) . His full title reads: The Englishmans Doctor, Or,The School of Salerne,Or, Physical observations for the perfect Preserving of the body of Man in continual health. Click here for a modern English translation from Patricia Willett Cummins, A Critical Edition of Le Regime Tresutile et tresproufitable pour Conserver et Garder la Santé du Corps Humain (1976). James L. Matterer supplies a useful introduction to the online translation.
De flore dietarum (Latin, early 13th cent.) Salernitan treatise on the humoral properties of various foods and drinks, compiled at the beginning of the 13th century, and originally attributed to Constantinus Africanus. Edited by Piero Cantalupo (1992).
Libellus de arte coquinaria ("The Harpestreng cookbook," Codex K, Latin and Danish, 13th cent.) The oldest known medieval Western recipe collection, originally written in Latin or French, probably in the late 12th or early 13th century, and later translated from Middle Low German into Danish, possibly by the royal physician Henrik Harpestraeng (d. 1244). Codex K (Copenhagen, Kongelige Bibliotek, Ny kgl. Samling, nr. 66, 8v°, ff. 140r-146v), with 25 recipes, dates from c. 1300; it was edited by M. Kristensen (1908-20). Click here for photographs of Codex K. Click here for Codex Q (Copenhagen, Kongelige Bibliotek, Ny kgl. Samling, nr. 70 R, 8v°, 5ff.), another Danish translation, with 31 recipes, dating from c. 1350. It was edited by C. Molbech in Historisk Tidsskrift, vol. 5 (København, 1844), pp. 540 - 546. A German version of this recipe collection is embedded in the 15th-century Mittelniederdeutsches Kochbuch (see below).
"Anonymous Andalusian cookbook": Kitab al-tabikh fi al-Maghrib wal-Andalus (Arabic, early 13th cent.) A collection of 543 recipes, translated here into English by Charles Perry, from the edition by Ambrosio Huici Miranda (La Cocina Hispano-Magrebi en la Epoca Almohade, 1965). Click here for another copy of Perry's English translation; click here for a searchable index of this collection.
Abu l-Hasan 'Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Abí l-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abí Bakr ibn Razin al-Tuyibi al-Andalusí, Fedalat Al-Jiwan fi tayyibat al-ta'am wa-l-alwan (Arabic, c. 1228-1243) Extracts, in a modern Spanish translation, from a collection of 441 recipes written in Andalusia. From a doctoral thesis by Fernando de la Granja Santamaría, "La cocina arabigoandaluza según un manuscrito inédito" (Madrid, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, 1960). Click here for the full text in Arabic, published by Muhammad B. A. Benchekroun in La Cuisine andalou-marocaine au XIIIe siècle (Beirut, 1984).
Aldobrandino da Siena (Aldebrandin de Sienne): Two chapters from La flours et la rose de toute medicine et fisisque, later known as Le Régime du corps (French, end of 13th - beginning of 14th cent.) The first two chapters of Part III: De totes manieres de blé, et du pain c'on en fait, and De totes manieres de buverages. From the edition by Louis Landouzy and Roger Pépin (1911). Click here for a photograph of an early manuscript (Paris, BnF, Arsenal, manuscrit 2510, fol. 49v), and here for another manuscript (Paris, BnF, Département des manuscrits, Français 12323, fol. 128v).
Viandier (French, second half of 13th cent.) This website contains discussions, transcriptions, and translations (into modern French) of all four extant medieval manuscripts of this celebrated French recipe collection. The earliest manuscript (Bibliothèque cantonale du Valais, Sion, S 108) was written c. 1300 on a parchment roll and contains 133 recipes. Click here to see the edition of the Sion MS by Paul Aebischer (1953) and original text with a facing translation in modern French. The text was revised in the late 1300s and attributed to the royal cook Guillaume Tirel, known as "Taillevent" (c. 1315-95). Three manuscript versions survive: one with 145 recipes, in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris (MS fonds français 19,791; before 1392; c. 1380, according to Jérôme Pichon); one with 156 recipes in the Vatican Library (MS Regina 776 [formerly 233 and 2159], fols. 48r-85r; c. 1400-50); one with 141 recipes in the Bibliothèque Mazarine, Paris (MS 3636, formerly MS 1253, folios 219r-228r; 15th cent.). A fourth manuscript (Saint-Lô, Archives de la Manche, Série E, Archives de la baronnie de la Haye-du-Puits, fols. 39v-46r; 15th cent.) was destroyed in a fire on D-Day (6 June 1944). Click here for the text of the Bibliothèque Nationale manuscript, with a facing translation in modern French; Click here for the text of the Vatican manuscript, from the edition of Jérôme Pichon and Georges Vicaire (1892), pp. 73-136; with an English translation by James Prescott. Click here for a searchable index to Prescott's translation. Click here for the text of the Vatican manuscript with facing translation in modern French. Click here for the text of the Mazarine manuscript, with a facing translation in modern French. Click here for a transcript of the printed edition of c. 1485/90, which contains a large collection of 15th-century recipes grafted onto a selection of the earlier Viandier recipes (221 recipes in all), together with some menus dating from 1455. This transcript is taken from Jérôme Pichon and Georges Vicaire, eds., Le Viandier de Guillaume Tirel dit Taillevent (Paris, 1892; reprint Geneva: Slatkine, 1967, and Luzarches: Daniel Morcrette, n.d.), pp. 141-199 ("Le Viandier de Taillevent -- Édition du XVe siècle"). Click here to see the title page of that(?) printed edition.
Enseignements qui enseingnent a apareillier toutes manieres de viandes (French, 1304-14) Contains 46 recipes. From the edition by Grégoire Lozinski in La bataille de caresme et de charnage (1933), pp. 181-187. Click here for a photograph of the original manuscript (Paris, BNF, Manuscrit Latin 7131, fol. 99v). Click here for another copy of the same photograph . Click here for a modern English translation by Daniel Myers. Click here for a searchable index of Myers' translation. Click here for the original text with facing modern French translation.Tractatus de modo preparandi et condiendi omnia cibaria (Latin, beginning of 14th cent.) Contains about 80 recipes. From the edition of Marianne Mulon, "Deux traités inédits d'art culinaire médiéval," in Bulletin philologique et historique (jusqu'à 1610) du Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques. Année 1968: Actes du 93e Congrès national des Sociétés savantes tenu à Tours. Volume 1: Les problèmes de l'alimentation (Paris, 1971, pp. 369-435; Tractatus, pp. 380-395.) Click here for a photograph of the manuscript (Paris, BnF, Département des manuscrits, Latin 9328, fols. 129r-133v).
Magninus Mediolanensis, Regimen sanitatis (Latin, c. early 1330s) Treatise on health and diet, by Maino de' Maineri of Milan, lecturer at the medical school at Paris. Scanned pages of the Strassburg edition of 1503.
Magninus Mediolanensis, Opusculum de saporibus (Latin, c. early 1330s) A collection of sauce recipes by Maino de' Maineri of Milan, lecturer at the medical school at Paris, which forms part of the author's dietetic treatise, Regimen sanitatis. Edited by Lynn Thorndike (1934) from Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale, MS VIII. D. 35, ff. 52rb-53va.
Das buch von guter spise (Daz buoch von guoter spise) (German, 1345-54) Collection of 96 recipes ("The Book of Good Food"), from a household manual compiled by Michael de Leone, proto-notary of the archbishop of Wurzburg. There are two extant MSS: (A) the original Würzburg MS (1345 x 1354), now München Universitãtsbibliothek, *2º Cod. MS 731 (Cim. 4), ff. 156ra-165vb, and (B) the later Dessau MS (c. 1400 x 1450), Anhaltische Landesbücherei, MS Georg. 278.2o, ff. 123v-132v. This is the text from the Würzburg-Münchener MS , edited by Hans Hajek (1958). Click here for an earlier (1844) edition of the text with an uneven English translation by Alia Atlas. Click here for a searchable index of Atlas's translation. Click here for a photograph of the Würzburg-Münchener manuscript with a modern German translation of the recipe for "Rheingauer Hühner." The two manuscripts are compared in Melitta Weiss Adamson's Daz buoch von guoter spise (The Book of Good Food). A Study, Edition, and English Translation of the Oldest German Cookbook, Medium Aevum Quotidianum, Sonderband IX (Krems, 2000).
The Forme of
Cury (English, c. 1390s) and Ancient Cookery
(English, c. 1381) A facsimile of
Samuel Pegge's edition of these recipe collections (1780),
taken, respectively, from British Library, Additional MS 5016
(roll), and Bodleian Library, MS Douce 257, ff. 86r-96v (under
the title "Diuersa servicia"). Click here for a
version of Pegge's edition, by Project Gutenberg (flawed
by scanning errors, e.g., "f" for tall "s" and "a" for
"æ"). Click here for scanned photos of a manuscript
Fourme of cury (John
Rylands University Library, English MS 7, 90 folios, 194
recipes, the last a 19th-cent. copy from Pegge's edition).
Click here for a transcription
of the Rylands manuscript, by Daniel Myers. Click
here for a searchable
index of The Forme of Cury , and for an index
to the original recipes with modern adaptations.
Click here to see a 29-minute episode of "The Medieval Mind" (BBC, 2008) in which Clarissa Dickson Wright examines the manuscript of the Forme of Cury and cooks three recipes from it: roast goose with Sauce Madame, fish with Egredouce sauce, and poached pears.
Antiquitates culinariae, or
Curious Tracts Relating to the Culinary Affairs of the Old
English, ed. Richard Warner (Latin and English, 1791)
In an extensive introduction, Warner surveys early cuisines, and
prints various texts, including the meat and fish menus for
Henry IV's wedding to Joan of Navarre in 1403 (pp. xxxiv-xxxv ),
the coronation menu of Katherine de Valois in 1421 (pp.
xxxv-xxxvii), the household regulations (including menus) of
Cecily Neville, mother of Edward IV (pp. xlvii-xlix), and the
breakfast menus from the household ordinances of Henry Percy,
fifth earl of Northumberland, 1512 (pp. xlix-li). Warner
then prints texts taken directly from recent printed editions:
Pegge's edition of
1780 (see above) of The Forme of Cury
(British Library, Add. MS 5016), and Ancient Cookery (Bodleian Library, MS Douce
257, ff. 86r-96v); the Society of Antiquaries' edition in Household Ordinances (1790)
of British Library, MS Arundel 334; a small collection of
recipes for the preservation of fruits, from the Antiquarian Repertory, IV
(1781), p. 95; and two menus from Thomas Hearne's edition of (1770) Leland's Collectanea, vol. VI: the enthronement of
George Neville as archbishop of York in 1465, and the
enthronement of William Warham as archbishop of Canterbury in
Menus for feasts, 1397 and 1443 (English) Banquet given by John of Gaunt for Richard II at Durham Place, London (the text dates this to 1387, but the correct date is 1397); and installation banquet of John Stafford, archbishop of Canterbury. From the edition of Thomas Austin (1888).
Le ménagier de Paris (French, c. 1393) From the edition of Jérôme Pichon (1846), pp. 80-210 (chapter on food and cookery). (Click here for a mirror of the same site .) Click here for two photographs of a 15th-cent. manuscript (BN, 12477, fol. 1r) (mislabeled: the top and bottom photos are from the Ménagier MS; the middle photo is from a manuscript of Boccaccio's Decameron). Click here for an English translation by Janet Hinson. Click here for a searchable index of the English translation. (For an authoritative English translation of the entire work, see The Good Wife's Guide (Le Menagier de Paris): A Medieval Household Book, trans. Gina L. Greco and Christine M. Rose (Cornell University Press, 2009).
royal banquet menus (English, c. 1390s)
Menus for a feast given for Richard II by "Lord Spenser"
(Thomas le Despenser, created earl of Gloucester 29 Sept. 1397),
and for a feast at the king's court. From the
edition of Constance B. Hieatt and Sharon Butler (1985),
with added translation into modern English.
"Anonymous Southerner," Book A: "Limonia" (Italian, late 14th-early 15th cent.) See also recipes for kid pie and hare stew . Click here for a brief description of this recipe collection .
Illustrations from the Tacuinum sanitatis (Latin, late 14th-early 15th cent.) These images illustrate passages in the text concerning the humoral properties and effects on health of various foods.
Amiczo, Du fait de cuisine (French, 1420)
Master Chiquart was chief cook to the duke of Savoy. English
translation by Elizabeth Cook. Click here for the table
of contents. Click here for a searchable
index of this collection. Click here for an
extract describing the
supplies needed for a grand feast . Click here for
of the manuscript (f. 70r) , with a
transcription and a modern French translation. Click here
from the original text with facing modern French translation.
Vivendier (French, c. 1425 or mid 15th cent.) With facing translation in modern French. From the edition by Bruno Laurioux in Le Règne de Taillevent. Livres et pratiques culinaires à la fin du Moyen Âge. Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1997. The sole manuscript, containing 66 recipes, is Kassel, Gesamthochschulbibliothek, 4° MS med. 1, folios 154r-164v. Terence Scully, in his edition of this manuscript (The Vivendier, Prospect Books, 1997), writes that it probably originated in northern -- most likely, northeastern -- France around the middle of the fifteenth century.
Johannes de Bockenheim, Registrum coquine (Latin, 1431-1435) Photograph of a folio from one of the two extant manuscripts, showing recipes 28 (Easter lamb) and 29 (tortas pro nobilibus). Paris, BNF, Département des manuscrits, Latin 7054. Bockenheim was cook to Pope Martin V. Click here for a discussion (in French) of Bockenheim and his collection of 74 recipes, including a transcription of Recipe 5 (boiled beef, "good for Germans"). See also Bockenheim's recipe for hemp-seed soup , and a brief biography of him.
Two Fifteenth-Century Cookbooks (English, c. 1430 and 1450) British Library, MSS. Harley 279 (c. 1430) and Harley 4016 (c. 1450), with extracts from Bodleian Library, MSS Ashmole 1439, Laud 553, and Douce 55. Edited by Thomas Austin (1888, rpt 1964). Click here for a searchable index of the recipes. Click here for a searchable index to this collection. Click here for an translation (with modernized recipes) of a dinner menu for the feast of the Holy Trinity from Harley 279.
Rheinfränkisches Kochbuch (German, c. 1445) Sample folio, with transcription and modern German translation, of Berlin, Staatsbibliothek Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ms. germ. fol. 244 (folio 285r). From the edition by Thomas Gloning (1998). Click here for two other photographs of the MS ( folios 290v and 293r), showing recipes for "Rheingauer Hühner" with modern German translations (scroll down page to recipes beginning "Willst du Pasteten machen" and "Nimm Wein und Honig").
Liber cure cocorum (English, c. temp. Henry VI) Cookbook in doggerel verse, from British Library, MS. Sloane 1986, ff. 27r-56v, edited by Richard Morris (1862). Click here for another copy, and for a parallel transcription and modern translation , with notes, by Cindy Renfrow. Click here for a searchable index of the recipes.
Martino Rossi (or da Como; "Maestro Martino"), Libro de arte coquinaria (Italian, c. late 1450s) Edited by Emilio Faccioli (1966). Click here for another copy of the original text. See also English translations of Master Martino's recipes for cheese pie with herbs, rice with almond milk , sturgeon , and eggnog . Click here for a brief biography of Master Martino .
Ein alemannisches Büchlein von guter Speise (German, 15th cent.) From the edition by Anton Birlinger (1865). Click here for two photographs of the manuscript (Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek, Cgm 284, folios 103v-104r), containing a recipe for "Rheingauer Hühner", with a modern German translation. (Scroll down to recipe beginning "Willst du eine Pastete machen," followed by snippet beginning "Und backe es in einem Ofen.")
Ein mittelniederdeutsches Kochbuch (German, 15th cent.) Edited by Hans Wiswe (1956). Recipes 56-71 duplicate those of the 13th-century "Harpestreng" cookbook (see above).
Libre de totes maneres de confits (Catalan, 15th cent.) Recipes for preserves, edited by Luis Faraudo de Saint-Germain (1946).
Küche der deutschen Ordensritter (German, c.
1450-1500) The earliest known cookbook from East
Prussia (Königsberg), edited by H. Gollub in Prussia, 31
(1935), 118-24, from a manuscript in Berlin (Geh. Staatsarchiv
Preuß. Kulturbesitz, XX. HA OBA 18384). See also R. G.
Päsler, "Deutschsprachige Sachliteratur im Preußenland bis 1500.
Untersuchungen zu ihrer Überlieferung." (Diss. phil., Oldenburg,
Le Recueil de Riom (French, c. 1466?) Collection of 48 recipes from a manuscript originally written in Riom (now Paris, Bibl. nat. lat. 6707, fols. 184-188). Original text, from the edition by Carole Lambert, with a somewhat uneven English translation by Jennifer Soucy. Click here for a searchable index to this collection.
manly Cokere (English, later 15th cent.)
Facsimiles of culinary recipes from Magdalene College,
Cambridge, MS Pepys 1047, originally published in a flawed
edition by Gerald Hodgett as Stere Htt Welle (1972).
New transcriptions are provided here by James L. Matterer, who
also intends to supply modern English translations and
adaptations for the modern cook. In progress.
Graz, University Library (UBG), MS 1609 (German, late 15th cent.) Two sample fast-day recipes, one for making imitation eggs out of pike and ginger, and the other for a walnut sauce for fish, with modern adaptations. In German (PDF file).
Kockrezepte aus dem bayrischen Inntal (German, 15th-16th
cent.) Edited by Berthilde Danner (1970).
Click here for an English
translation by Volker Bach.
Livro de Cozinha da Infanta D. Maria (Portuguese, c. 1480 - c. 1510) Extracts from the edition by Giacinto Manuppela (Lisbon, 1986) of MS I. E 33 in the Biblioteca Nazionale, Naples. The Infanta Maria of Portugal (1538-77) married Alessandro Farnese in 1565, and this manuscript, which contains 73 folios and includes some Farnese texts, probably belonged to her. The collection of 67 culinary recipes is untitled and undated, and written in a variety of hands of c. 1480 - c.1510. Click here for a description of the manuscript in French and another description in Portuguese (with bibliographic references), and for a photo of Recipe I and a photo of Recipe LXVI. The collection called Um tratado da cozinha portuguesa do século XV appears to be a modern Portuguese adaptation of this recipe collection, with measures given in liters, grams, and kilos, by Antônio Gomes Filho (Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Nacional do Livro: 1963, rpt 1994). Click here (select HTML or PDF) for a modern English translation by "Faerisa Gwynarden" [Fernanda Gomes] of the latter. Click here for a searchable index to this translation.
Barbarus (Ermolao Barbaro), description of an Italian wedding
banquet (Latin, 1488) This description was
translated into French by Michel Nostradamus and published in
de Nola, Libre de doctrina per a ben servir, de tallar y
del art de coch (Catalan, late 15th - early 16th
cent.) Recipe collection and description of
servants' duties by Master Robert, cook to Ferrando (Ferrante or
Ferdinand), King of Naples. The earliest printed culinary text
in Catalan (Barcelona, 1520). Click here for photographs
of the original edition. For an English translation by
Robin Carroll-Mann of a later Spanish edition of de Nola's book
(Logrono, 1529), click here for Part
One; click here for Part
Two . Click
here for a searchable
index of this collection.
Return to Links
Platine en francoys (French,
photographs of the early French version of the Latin De honesta voluptate,
compiled by Bartolomeo Sacchi ("Battista Platina") about
1470, and first printed at Rome
in 1473. Sacchi took most of his recipes from the Libro de arte coquinaria (c. late
1450s), by the celebrated chef Martino Rossi ("Maestro Martino;" see above).
The Boke of Kervynge (English, 1508) Treatise, printed by Wynkyn de Worde, on carving and serving food, with recipes for hippocras and sauces, seasonçal menus, and the duties of various servants.
Een notabel boecxken van cokeryen (Dutch, c. 1514) The first printed cookbook in Dutch, published in Brussels by Thomas vander Noot (c. 1475-1525), and reprinted in a facsimile edition in 1925. A partial English translation is provided. Click here for another copy, in Dutch only, made available by Marleen van der Molen-Willebrands from the edition that she and Ria Jansen-Sieben published in 1994.Von Speisen, natuerlichen und kreuter Wein, aller verstand (German, 1531) English translation by Alia Atlas, from the edition printed in the Reihe Klassische Kochkunst, vol. 7 (1984).
Kochbuch von Sabina Welserin (German, 1553)
English translation by Valoise Armstrong (1998). Click here for
German text from the edition of Hugo Stopp (1980). Click
for a searchable
index of this collection.
(German, c. 1554)
Edition published in Augsburg in 1886 of a recipe collection
described as belonging to "Junckfraw Maria Stenglerin" in 1554.
Dernschwam, Description of food and foodways in Turkey
(German, 1553-5) From the diary kept by Dernschwam
(1494-1568), a Bohemian scholar and agent of the Fuggers in
Transylvania, of a trip to Constantinople and Asia Minor. Edited
by Franz Babinger in Studien zur Fugger-Geschichte, 7
(München/Leipzig, 1923), 123-131.
Michel Nostradamus, "La façon & maniere de faire toutes confitures" (French, 1555) Scanned photographs of the second part of a volume of recipes attributed to the celebrated physician and astrologer. The volume itself is titled Excellent & moult utile Opuscule à touts necessaire, qui desirent auoir cognoissance de plusieurs exquises Receptes, diuisé en deux parties. (The first part of the volume, not scanned here, contains cosmetic recipes.)
A Proper newe Booke of Cokerye (English, c. 1557-8) Early English printed cookbook that discusses seasonal foods and provides suggested menus and recipes. Edited by Catherine Frances Frere (1913), from a unique copy in the Parker Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, printed in London by John Kynge and Thomas Marche (undated, but probably c. 1557-8). See above for an earlier edition of 1545. Click here for a searchable index to this collection.Koch vnd Kellermeisterey (German, 1566) Edited from the early printed text by Christian Heuer and Thomas Gloning.
Bartolomeo Scappi, Opera (Italian, 1570) Scappi was privy cook to Pope Pius V. This is a scanned version of Scappi's cookbook, from the Getty Research Institute. Click here for a banquet menu from Scappi's work, taken from L’arte della cucina in Italia, ed. Emilio Faccioli (1987). Click here for another scanned version of the edition of 1570, and for editions of 1605, 1610, and 1622.
William Harrison, Description of England (English, 1577): "Of the food and diet of the English" Harrison describes the food, drink, and meals of his day.
Marx Rumpolt, Ein New Kochbuch (German, 1581) Transcription and English translation by M. Grasse. Click here for selections from the original German text.
Manual de mujeres en el cual se contienen muchas y diversas recetas muy buenas (Spanish, 16th cent.) Contains both culinary and household recipes. Click here for an English translation (in progress).
A.W., A Book of Cookrye (English, 1591) Originally published in 1584, "now newlye enlarged with the serving in of the Table." Transcribed by Mark and Jane Waks from STC 24897 -- Early English Text microfilms, reel 1613:9.
Battus (or Carel Baten), Cocboeck (Dutch, 1593)
The first edition, by a physician of Dordrecht, and transcribed
here by Marleen van der Molen-Willebrands. The full
title reads: Eenen seer schoonen, ende excellenten
Cocboeck, inhoudende alderleye wel gheëxperimenteerde cokagien
van ghebraedt, ghesoden, pasteyen, taerten, toerten, vlaeyen,
saussen, sopen ende diergelijcke. Oock diversche confeytueren
ende drancken, etc. An important source for De
verstandige kock (1669; see below for link).
Dawson, The Good Huswifes Jewell (English, 1596)
Extracts from the third edition of Dawson's book, transcribed by
Kirrily Robert. The full title reads: The Good
Huswifes Jewell. Wherein is to be found most excellent
and rare Devises for conceites in Cookery, found out by the
practise of Thomas Dawson. Whereunto is adjoyned sundry
approved receits for many soveraine oyles, and the way to
distill many precious waters, with divers approved medicines
for many diseases. Also certain approved points of husbandry,
very necessary for all Husbandmen to know. Newly set
foorth with additions. 1596. Imprinted at London for Edward
White dwelling at the little North doore of Paules at the
signe of the Gun. Click here for a searchable
index of this collection.
Grewe (Italian, Latin, French, English, Spanish, and Dutch,
16th-18th cent.) Rudolf Grewe's
collection of 38 early modern printed cookbooks and related
texts, scanned by the Biblioteca de la Universitat de
Barcelona. (The instructions are in Catalan. To page
through a volume, enter the desired page number and click on anar_a.
To go forward one page, click on endavant. To go
back one page, click on enrera. To go to the
beginning of the volume, click on inici.)
Lancelot de Casteau, Ouverture de Cuisine (French, 1604) Casteau, who served as master cook to three successive prince-bishops of Liège, included recipes attributed to the style of Hungary, Germany, Portugal, Spain, Catalonia, Lombardy, Italy, Rome, Bologna, Cremona, England, and Ireland. From the facsimile edition of Herman Liebaers, Léo Moulin, and Jacques Kother (1983). Click here for a modern English translation by Daniel Myers. Click here for a searchable index to this collection.Relatione d'alcune cose della Nuova Spagna (1529?/ Italian, 1606) Description of the food and drink of Mexico, by an anonymous gentleman who had served with Cortez. From G.B. Ramusio, Delle Navigationi et Viaggi, volume terzo (Venetia, 1606).
Hugh Plat, Delightes for Ladies (English, 1609) Miscellaneous excerpts from Plat's collection of culinary and household recipes, especially for preserves, pastry, sweetmeats, and toiletries, transcribed by Kirrily Robert. Click here for a searchable index of this collection.
John Murrell, A New Booke of Cookerie; London Cookerie (English, 1615) The full title reads: A Nevv Booke of Cookerie. VVherein is set forth the newest and most commendable Fashion for Dressing or Sowcing, eyther Flesh, Fish, or Fowle. Together with making of all sorts of Iellyes, and other made-Dishes for seruice; both to beautifie and adorne eyther Nobleman or Gentlemans Table. Hereunto also is added the most exquisite London Cookerie. All set forth according to the now, new, English and French fashion. Set forth by the obseruation of a Traueller. Click here for a searchable index to this collection.
Koge-Bog: Indeholdendis et hundrede fornødene stycker [etc.] (Danish, 1616) The earliest printed Scandinavian cookbook, containing 100 recipes. The full title reads: Koge Bog: Indeholdendis et hundrede fornødene stycker Som ere om Brygning Bagning Kogen Brændevijn oc Miød at berede saare nytteligt vdi Husz holdning &c. Click here for the same text with an accompanying modern English translation by Maggie Forest.
John Taylor, anecdote on recipe-collecting, from Taylor's Feast (English, 1638) Humorous account of a lawyer who so enjoyed a dish (a "fool") at supper that he requested the recipe, "that his Wife might put it in her booke of Cookery."
Ambigu (table spread with a cold buffet, English, 1698?) Photograph of a reconstruction of an Ambigu, a cold buffet containing a mixture of savory and sweet dishes and fruits, popular in 17th-century France and England.
Sir Kenelm Digby, The Closet of the Eminently Learned Sir Kenelme Digbie Kt Opened (English, 1669) The complete title reads: The Closet of the Eminently Learned Sir Kenelme Digbie Kt Opened: Whereby is Discovered Several ways for making of Metheglin, Sider, Cherry-Wine, &c. together with Excellent Directions for Cookery: As also for Preserving,Conserving, Candying, &c. Excerpts from Digby's collection of recipes for various drinks.
verstandige kock of sorghvuldige huyshoudster (Dutch,
1669) The only cookbook published in Dutch in the
Netherlands (Amsterdam: Marcus Doornick) during the 17th
century, transcribed here by Marleen van der Molen-Willebrands.
Gervase Markham, The English Huswife (English, 1615; 9th edition, 1683) Excerpts from the ninth edition of Markham's book (originally published in 1615), transcribed by Kirrily Roberts. This transcription was formerly available at http://infotrope.net/sca/texts/english-housewife/, but now is available at the Foods of England website (above), and also via the Internet Archive.
Hannah Woolley, The Gentlewoman's Companion: or, A Guide to the Female Sex (English, 1675) Begins with chapters on the education and deportment of women, and follows with culinary recipes, medicinal recipes, advice to servants, model letters, and witty dialogues.
Ein Koch- Und Artzney-Buch (German, 1686) Austria's earliest printed cookbook; 118 pages.
Petre, manuscript cookbook (English, 1705)
Photographs of the MS and its recipe pages, from the University
of Pennsylvania Library.