Professor Martha Carlin's Home Page

Contact information:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

        Martha Carlin
        University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
        Department of History
        P.O. Box 413
        Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 USA

        Telephone:        (414) 229-5767 (direct line)
        Messages:         (414) 229-4361 (History Department Office)
        Office:              Holton Hall, room 328
        Office hours:     Tuesdays 11 AM to 12 noon, and by appointment 

The Bard at the Tabard

Did Shakespeare, Jonson and their ‘roystering associates’ drink at the inn where Chaucer’s pilgrims gathered? An intriguing discovery suggests they did

(This article can also be found at: - Shakespeare at the Tabard.htm)

See also: (follow-up letter in TLS) and (survey of new buildings in the parish of St Saviour, Southwark, 27 Feb. 1634/5; see 8th entry for the Talbot [Tabard] inn)

Listen to a podcast about this discovery: Shakespeare and the Tabard Inn (Folger Shakespeare Library: Shakespeare Unlimited -- Episode 28, published July 15, 2015).

See  also "Shakespeare the Roisterer at the Tabard Inn" -- a photograph of the manuscript featured in this podcast episode, together with a commentary on it, on exhibit January 20 - March 27, 2016, at the Folger Shakespeare Library, as part of Shakespeare: Life of an Icon, and in the accompanying online exhibition,

Areas of specialization:

        Medieval social and economic history, with a focus on English urban history and archaeology, food and diet, and household technologies

Grade calculator

Current and recent courses:

  Fall 2016: 

            History 203 (Early Middle Ages): syllabus
            History 203: weekly lecture outlines
            History 203: some primary sources for research papers

           History 371 (England, 1200-1250): syllabus

           History 371: weekly lecture outlines
           History 371 (England, 1200-1250): Discussion materials
           History 371 (England, 1200-1250): Selected correspondence of Ralph de Neville

 Spring 2016   

History 204 (High Middle Ages): syllabus
History 204: weekly lecture outlines
            History 204: some primary sources for research papers

            History 840: Colloquium in Global History (Food, Culture, and Power: The Role of Food in History)
            History 840 (Food, Culture, and Power): weekly discussion materials
            History 840 (Food, Culture, and Power): some historic menus

Fall 2015       

History 203 (Early Middle Ages): syllabus   
            History 203: weekly lecture outlines   
            History 203: some primary sources for research papers

           History 371 (England, 1200-1250): syllabus   
           History 371: weekly lecture outlines
           History 371 (England, 1200-1250): Discussion materials
           History 371 (England, 1200-1250): Selected correspondence of Ralph de Neville

Spring 2015        

History 204 (High Middle Ages) 
            History 204: weekly lecture outlines
            History 204: some primary sources for research papers

            History 371 (England, 1200-1250)
            History 371: weekly lecture outlines
            History 371 (England, 1200-1250): Discussion materials
            History 371 (England, 1200-1250): Selected correspondence of Ralph de Neville

       A Collection of Medieval Sources

                                                                                              TEACHING LINKS:







           (Note: to search this web site for specific words or phrases, press Control-F.)

Courses taught in previous semesters:

           History 101 (Western Civilization to 1500)
           Western Civilization to 1500: Online Readings

          History 192 (Life in a Medieval Castle)
History 192: Weekly discussion materials
          History 192: Images
          History 192: Online readings

          History 203 (Early Middle Ages)
          History 203: weekly lecture outlines
          History 203: some primary sources for research papers         

           History 204 (High Middle Ages) 
          History 204: weekly lecture outlines  
          History 204:  some primary sources for research papers  

          History 371 (England, 1200-1250)
          History 371 (England, 1200-1250): Weekly lecture outlines
          History 371 (England, 1200-1250): Discussion materials
          History 371 (England, 1200-1250): Selected correspondence of Ralph de Neville

          History 600 (Senior seminar: The Role of Food in History) 
          History 600 (Role of Food in History): weekly discussion materials
History 600 (Role of Food in History): some historic menus
          History 840: Colloquium in Global History (Food, Culture, and Power: The Role of Food in History)
          History 840 (Food, Culture, and Power): weekly discussion materials
          History 840 (Food, Culture, and Power): some historic menus

          History 850 (Colloquium in European History: Medieval Cities)

           History 950 (Seminar in European History: London to 1600)

           Liberal Studies 721 (Food, Culture, and Power: The Role of Food in History)
           Food, Culture, and Power: some historic menus

           Some Food History discussion materials

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Documentation Guides:

 Documenting Your History Paper  This is my own four-page class handout.  (For writing problems to avoid, see also my one-page list of writing tips and example of how not to write a paper.)  For more detailed documentation manuals, try one of the following.

Guidelines for Writing Papers  My own short guide on how to write and document a paper.

The Chicago Manual of Style Online  The full text of this essential documentation and writing guide.

The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide Straightforward summary of basic citation formats.  Examples of Notes are numbered; examples of bibliographical entries are unnumbered.

The Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition, 2010)  From the website of Purdue's writing lab.  There is a similar website at Trinity College.

Chicago Manual of Style  Excellent examples of how to cite all kinds of different sources in Notes and Bibliography.  From Williams College Libraries.

Chicago/Turabian Documentation Style  How to do Notes and Bibliography, from UW-Madison's Writing Center.

Citation Machine: Chicago Style  This website, and also a similar website called BibMe,  will find the full bibliographical information on a book, article, film, or website, and will generate a Chicago-style Bibliography entry for it.  (Neither site will do Notes, however.)

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Universities and History Departments:

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee's home page

Google search of University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee's Website  Use Google's search engine to search UWM's Website.

UWM History Department's home page

Universities Worldwide Links to websites for more than 8500 colleges and universities around the world.

History Departments Around the World

Teachers of History in the Universities of the United Kingdom   Searchable database, provided by the Institute of Historical Research.
 Grants for Individuals: History   Useful collection of links to granting bodies.

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History, Archaeology, and Medieval Studies:

 Medieval Sources Bibliography  Annotated bibliography of texts from the period c. 300-1500 — from private letters, wills, and household accounts to literary works, philosophical treatises, chronicles, court proceedings, church records, and a host of other documents — that were written in the Middle Ages and are now available in printed or online editions and translations. Includes links to online editions.  Based at Fordham University.

The Labyrinth A comprehensive Web site for Medieval Studies. Based at Georgetown University.

 The World Wide Virtual Library: History   Numerous links to a wide variety of History and related Web sites worldwide.

World History Compass Links to History sites on the Web the world over. Very useful.

 Archaeology Data Service   Massive index of online archaeological resources, including:

         Archives  Archaeological journals and series, grey literature, project archives, bibliographies, theses

         CBA Occasional Papers  Full-text electronic versions of Council for British Archaeology Occasional Papers.

         CBA Research Reports Full-text electronic versions of out-of-print Council for British Archaeology research
           and excavation reports.

 Archaeological Resource Guide for Europe   A virtual library for European archaeology. In English and Dutch.

 The English Collection  Collections of useful links on British history, literature, government, media, culture.

 Ménestrel (médiévistes sur l'internet: sources travaux références en ligne)  A portal for medieval links and online resources.  In French.

 Société de l'Oriflamme Gateway to web sites on European medieval warfare.

 Institut für Realienkunde des Mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit  Links to databases of images, small-finds, and other research materials that focus on daily life in the medieval and early modern periods.  Formerly based at the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, or ÖAW); since 2012 at the Universität Salzburg.  In German.

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Libraries and Bibliographies:

 Library of Congress  Home page of the Library of Congress.

 MELVYL  Consolidated online catalogue of the University of California libraries. Superb.

 COPAC Consolidated online catalogues of major British and Irish university research libraries. Based at the University of Manchester.

 Online Resources for Medieval Manuscripts and Painting  Part of Harvard College Library's valuable collection of links to online resources concerning medieval art and architecture.

 Die Digitale Bibliothek   Online catalogues of German research libraries and databanks, with links to some major online library catalogues worldwide.  Instructions primarily in German.  Click on "Alle Standorte" for widest possible search.

 Peraldus  Alain Nadeau's collection of bibliographical references to more than 37,000 medieval manuscripts in some 1,580 libraries worldwide.

 Medieval Libraries of Great Britain  This website brings together two standard research tools for medieval British libraries: (1) Neil Ker’s Medieval Libraries of Great Britain, which lists, by its modern shelf-mark, every manuscript that bears evidence of its institutional home in the middle ages, and (2) the Corpus of British Medieval Library Catalogue, ed. Richard Sharpe, which prints medieval book-lists.  In progress.

 British Library: Catalogues of manuscripts and archives  See also the British Library's consolidated Catalogue of Archives and Manuscripts.

 British Library: New catalogue of Cotton MSS  Compiled by Dr Nigel Ramsay in 1990-97 to supplement and update the original Cotton MSS catalogue published by Joseph Planta  in 1801.  Includes  a partial bibliography of publications of manuscripts in the collection.

 Bodleian Library, Oxford: Manuscripts and Rare Books   Includes online catalogues for the Bodleian's electronic catalogue of medieval and Renaissance manuscripts.  For a few collections (e.g., MSS Lat.), there is an online handlist of manuscripts; for most collections, there are merely references to printed catalogues and a brief history of the collection.  

 Bodleian Library, Oxford: Images from Manuscripts   Browsable selection of images, 11th-17th cent., arranged by century and country of origin.

  Early Manuscripts at Oxford University   A selection of medieval and early modern manuscripts, scanned from the collections of the Bodleian Library and of six college libraries.

 NEWTON: Online catalogues of Cambridge University libraries  Includes separate catalogues for CUL and individual college libraries.

  Medieval and Modern Thought Digitization Project   This project, based at Stanford University, is digitizing a wide range of printed sources, including some of the catalogues of manuscripts in Oxford and Cambridge college libraries.

 Vatican Library  Home page of the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. Includes an online catalogue (in Italian and English) of both manuscripts and printed books.

 LibDex  Alphabetical index to libraries around the world.

 North American libraries containing pre-1600 manuscripts  Lists of institutions in Canada, the US, and Puerto Rico that own pre-1600 manuscripts.  (This valuable website of the UMCC [Uncatalogued Manuscripts Control Center] disappeared with AOL, but an archived version is available at:

 Medieval manuscripts in North America: changes in ownership   Collections that have changed hands since the publication of de Ricci's Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada and the Supplement by Faye and Bond.  Posted by the Uncatalogued Manuscript Control Center (formerly known as the Union Manuscript Computer Catalogue).  (This valuable website of the UMCC disappeared with AOL, but an archived version is available at:  See also the archived pages from the same website of private collections in De Ricci's Census and Faye and Bond's Supplement, and untraced manuscripts.)

 C. W. Dutschke, Guide To Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Huntington Library  Online version of the Huntington's printed catalague, which describes 390 medieval and renaissance manuscripts in Latin script.  In general, documents, fragments, and books in non-Latin script are excluded.  For documentary material, see the printed Guide to British Historical  Manuscripts in the Huntington Library (San Marino, 1982).

 Lawrence J. Schoenberg Collection of Manuscripts    The late Lawrence J. Schoenberg's collection (primarily late medieval and early modern manuscripts) is now housed in the Schoenberg Institute for Manuscript Studies (SIMS) at the University of Pennsylvania.  There is a .pdf "checklist" of the manuscripts in the collection, to which a hotlink is available on this page.  There is also an online version of the catalogue published in 2006 by Christopher de Hamel.

 Schoenberg Database of Manuscripts  Database of medieval manuscript books of five or more folios produced before 1600, and their provenance.

 Seymour de Ricci Bibliotheca Britannica Manuscripta Digitized Archive  Searchable database containing the digitized notes of the historian and bibliographer Seymour Montefiore Robert Rosso de Ricci (1881-1942) made for the compilation of his unfinished Bibliotheca Britannica Manuscripta. This project was intended as a companion work to his Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada, published between 1935 and 1940. De Ricci's notes, compiled in thirty-four boxes containing over 60,000 index cards and originally bequeathed to the Institute for Historical Research in London, are currently housed in the Senate House Library at the University of London.  In collaboration with the Senate House Library, the Schoenberg Center for Electronic Text and Image has made this valuable resource available online in downloadable pdf files. The cards are arranged by individual Collectors (listed by last name) and Repositories (by town, institution, or college).  

 Handschriftencensus  Detailed handlist of medieval manuscripts in the German language, including information about modern editions.  Arranged in alphabetical lists of authors/titles and repositories.   In progress.

  Münchener Digitalisierungs Zentrum/Digitale Bibliothek  Portal for digital library sites, including medieval manuscripts and incunabula such as Druckgraphische Buchillustrationen des 15. Jh (illustrations from 76 German incunabula, searchable by volume [results in German only] and by topical alphabetical index [in both German and English]).

Repertorium Chronicarum: A Bibliography of the Manuscripts of Medieval Latin Chronicles  This project, directed by Dan Embree, attempts to record the location of every known manuscript of every known Latin chronicle of the Middle Ages.  Searchable by author, title, city, and library.  In progress.

 Voigts-Kurtz Search Program: Indexes to medieval scientific and medical writings in Latin and English  Searchable indexes
of  (1) Lynn Thorndike and Pearl Kibre, A Catalogue of Incipits of Mediaeval Scientific Writings in Latin (1963) and supplements; and (2) an expanded and revised version of Linda Ehrsam Voigts and Patricia Deery Kurtz, Scientific and Medical Writings in Old and Middle English: An Electronic Reference (CD, 2000).

ORB: On-Line Reference Book for Medieval Studies  Includes online sourcebook, encyclopedia, and bibliographies.

Royal Historical Society, consolidated Annual Bibliographies of British and Irish History  More than 445,00 entries.  Accessible to subscribers only.

  Medieval English Towns   Large, useful website.  Includes a  Medieval English Urban History Bibliography.

History theses in the UK   Searchable database of completed and in-progress doctoral theses and M.A. dissertations at universities in the UK, provided by the Institute of Historical Research.

  Teachers of History in the UK and the Republic of Ireland  Searchable database, provided by the Institute of Historical Research.

 Theses Canada Search AMICUS, Canada's national online catalogue, for bibliographic records of all theses in the National Library of Canada theses collection (established 1965); access for free the full-text electronic versions of Canadian theses and dissertations that were published from the beginning of 1998 to August 31, 2002.

 History dissertations, US and Canada  Searchable database of doctoral dissertations completed and in progress at American and Canadian universities.  Provided by the American Historical Association.

 Bibliography of Roman, medieval and early modern  wills and probate inventories  Word-searchable bibliography of printed wills and inventories and testamentary studies, alphabetized by title, rather than author.  Covers Western Europe.

 Stuart Jenks's Magazine Stacks  Searchable collection of tables of contents of dozens of German and English medieval history journals, covering thousands of volumes.  An outstanding resource.

 ILEJ: Internet Library of Early Journals  Searchable, browsable collection of 18th- and 19-century English journals, including The Gentleman's Magazine and Notes and Queries.

 English Medieval Legal Documents, AD 600- AD 1535: A Compilation of Published Sources  A collaborative database on the published sources of English medieval legal documents, with links to online sources.  At the University of Southern California.

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The National Archives, London   On 2 April 2003 the Public Record Office, the Historic Manuscripts Commission, and the National Register of Archives merged to form a new organization: The National Archives.  Click here for information on classes of Medieval and Early Modern Records.

Repositories of Primary Sources  Lists repositories of manuscripts, archives, rare books, historical photographs, and other collections of primary sources around the world.  No longer maintained after January 2015.

 English Monastic Archives   Research project seeking to reconstruct the archives of every medieval English monastery, and to elucidate the origins of record-keeping in England.  Based at University College London, and directed by Professor David d'Avray.  In progress.

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Reference Tools: Biographies, Genealogies, Wills

   Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004)  Online version of the newly-revised and updated DNB, containing some 50,000 British biographies from earliest times to the year 2000.   Searching can by done by subscribers only, but there are free trial subscriptions available for institutions.

 Dictionary of National Biography: Index and Epitome  By Sidney Lee (1903).  An index and summary version of the 63 original volumes and 3 supplement volumes of the first edition of the DNB.

Directory of Royal Genealogical Data   A massive database of  everyone linked by blood or marriage to the British royal family, from earliest times to the present. Contains more than 30,000 entries, in effect covering most of the royal houses of Europe.  Although individual entries are not documented, the site includes a lengthy bibliography of sources consulted.

 The Valuable, fully-documented database of the peerage of Britain and the royal families of Europe.

 Debrett's Complete Peerage of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland  Complete text of the 22nd edn (1838), edited by William Courthope. 

Some corrections and additions to the Complete Peerage  Compiled by Chris Phillips since the publication by Peter Hammond in 1998 of a volume of addenda and corrigenda to the Complete Peerage.

 Généalogies Royales et Princières  Genealogical database of the French royal family and of the princely and ducal families that descended from St. Louis, and of various modern royal and princely families.  In French.

 Database of the Higher Nobility in Europe  Instructions provided in various languages, including English.

 Knights of the Garter (1348-present)  A chronological list.  See also Knights of the Garter (1348-1488).

  Members of Parliament, 1386-1421  From the "History of Parliament Online," with MP biographies from The History of Parliament: The House of Commons 1386-1421, ed. J. S. Roskell, L. Clark, and C. Rawcliffe (1993).

  England's Immigrants, 1330-1550  Searchable database of 64,000 immigrants to England between 1330 and 1550.

  The Soldier in Later Medieval England  Searchable databases (muster rolls, letters of protection, and Normandy garrison) of soldiers who served (or intended to serve) in the English forces of the Hundred Years' War between 1369 and 1453.

 Medieval probate records  Useful collection of links to medieval British probate records.

  Index of Wills Proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury  J. Challenor C. Smith, 4 vols. (British Record Society, vols. 10, 11, 18, 25, 1893-1901): vol. 1 (1383-1558, A-J); vol. 2 (1383-1558, K-Z); vol 3 (1558-1583); vol. 4 (1584-1604).  

 Testamenta Vetusta (index of testators)  Index of the 807 English wills, dating from the 12th century to the 16th century, that were edited by Nicholas Harris Nicolas in 1826.

 Medieval & Tudor Kent P.C.C. & C.C.C. Wills  These wills were transcribed by Leland Lewis Duncan (1862-1923).

  F. J. Furnivall, ed., Fifty Earliest English Wills in the Court of Probate, London (English, 1387-1454)  Collection of London wills in English, 1387-1439, with a priest's will of 1454, proved in the Prerogative Court of the Archbishop of Canterbury.  Originally published in Early English Text Society, Original Series, vol. 78, 1882 (rpt 1964).

 Lincoln Diocese Documents, 1450-1544   63 ecclesiastical court documents, mostly wills, edited by Andrew Clark (1914). 

 Cambridge University Alumni, 1261-1900  Searchable biographical index, drawn from J. A. Venn's massive Alumni Cantabrigienses (1921).

 Biographisch-Bibliographischen Kirchenlexikon  14,000-entry biographical dictionary in the fields of theology, history, literature, philosophy, pedagogy, music, and painting.  Signed articles include useful literature surveys.  In German.

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  Reference Tools: Calendars and Dictionaries

  The Roman Calendar  Brief history of the Roman calendar, with separate page on the Julian calendar.

 English Calendar  Converts English regnal dates and the dates of seven major movable feasts to month-day-year dates.

 Medieval Calendar Calculator  Displays a calendar, including all major feasts, for any year between AD 500 and 1582.

 A Medieval English Calendar   Calendar calculator by historical years (1001-1600) and by English regnal years (William I-Elizabeth I, 1066-1603).   Includes the date of Easter for each year, and also Roman dates for each day of each month (Kalends, Nones and Ides).

 Calendar for any year  Enter the country and the year and this online calendar calculator (which is at the website will display the calendar, which includes the phases of the moon.  For calendars of the current year and upcoming years, and for a world clock, see also

  The Medieval Year   A description of the yearly cycle of religious events, what they meant, and how they were celebrated in the 15th century. 

 Oxford English Dictionary
  Online version of the OED, with regular updates.

   eLALME (electronic version of A Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English, 2013)  Online edition of A Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English, by Angus McIntosh, M.L. Samuels and Michael Benskin, published in 1986 by Aberdeen University Press, and revised and updated by Michael Benskin and Margaret Laing.  For the materials and methodology used in the original edition, click here for the Original Atlas Introduction.

 The Middle English Dictionary (2001)  Online version of the recently-completed MED.

 A Concise Dictionary of Middle English, from A.D. 1150 to 1580  Scanned version of the dictionary published by  A. L. Mayhew and Walter W. Skeat in 1888.

 OneLook Dictionary Search Simultaneously searches almost six million words in 963 dictionaries, including a number of foreign languages (but not Latin).  Includes a "reverse dictionary" that allows the searcher to describe a concept, and then offers a list of words or phrases related to that concept.  In English.

 Ian Lancashire (ed.), Lexicons of Early Modern English (LEME)  Searchable database of dictionaries and other lexical materials dating from 1480 to 1702.  This project is the successor to the Early Modern English Dictionaries Database (EMEDD).

Lewis and Short, A Latin Dictionary (1879)  A searchable version of the famous Classical Latin dictionary.  Click here for an English-to-Latin version.

  Du Cange, et al., Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis (Latin and French, 1883-7)  Ten-volume, nineteenth-century Latin-French edition of the magnificent lexicon originally published in Latin by Charles du Fresne, sieur Du Cange (d. 1688).  Searchable online version produced by France's École nationale des chartes.

  J. F. Niermeyer, Medieval Latin Lexicon (Latin, French, and English, 1976)  Comprehensive dictionary of medieval Latin, originally published (as Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus) by Brill.  In French and English.  Subsequent printed editions of Niermeyer's Lexicon Minus have added German to the languages in which all definitions are given.

 Dictionnaire Latin-Français  More than 46,000 entries.  In Latin and French.

 Medieval Latin Dictionary from Danish Sources    Searchable wordlist, from a Web site called Saxo Grammaticus.  The actual title reads: Vademecum in opus Saxonis et alia opera Danica compendium ex indice verborum.  In Latin.

 Anglo-Norman Dictionary  A revised and expanded version of the printed edition published by the Anglo-Norman Text Society (1977-92).  Made available through the Anglo-Norman On-Line Hub, which also provides access to Anglo-Norman source texts and related articles.

 The Lexis of Cloth and Clothing in Britain, c. 700-1450 (various medieval languages of Britain, 2006-present)   Valuable analytical corpus of medieval dress and textiles terminology of the British Isles in the form of a searchable database.  Based at the University of Manchester.

 Lexique d'ancien français  Online dictionary, compiled by Douglas C. Walker

 REFLEX (Research in Early French Lexicography)   Online collection of dictionaries compiled in France before 1500.

 Dictionnaires d'autrefois  Online editions of French dictionaries of the 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries.

 Jean Nicot, Thresor de la langue francoyse, tant ancienne que moderne (French, 1606)  An early French dictionary, searchable by headword.

Mittelhochdeutsche Wörterbücher Online  Searchable online composite version of three dictionaries of Middle High German, together with an extra finding aid that includes vocabulary from religious and other texts not consulted by the dictionary editors.  In German.

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Reference Tools: Economic

WWW Unit Converter   Converts one type of unit to another (e.g., feet to meters, US bushels to liters, etc.)

Calculation and Conversion Tools   The Internet Public Library's collection of links to online calculators and conversion tools for such things as weights, measures, Roman numerals, and currencies.  Another collection of handy conversion tools, created by Lilly Hammond.

Wages and Prices in Europe   Hyperlist of websites containing statistical data on wages and prices (including currency exchange rates) in Europe, from the medieval period to the present.  Sites include the Medieval and Early Modern Data Bank.
 Purchasing Power of British Pounds, 1245-present   An online calculator by Lawrence H. Officer; part of a broader collection of economic calulators for measuring relative worth over time called

  UK Annual Inflation Rates, 1265-present  Another online calculator by
Lawrence H. Officer from

 UK Earnings and Prices, 1264-present  Another online calculator by Lawrence H. Officer from, based on three data bases:
the "consumer" price index, average nominal earnings, and average real earnings.

 Russ Rowlett, A Dictionary of Units of Measurement  Extemely useful.  Prof. Rowlett is the Director of the Center for Mathematics and Science Education at the University of North Carolia, Chapel Hill.

 Weights & Measures, Ancient and Modern, of Europe and Asia 

  Medieval Crop Yields Database (1211-1491)  The largest and most precise database on pre-modern grain harvests currently available internationally.  Based on medieval English manorial accounts (including the Bishopric of Winchester Pipe Rolls), and assembled by Bruce Campbell from his own work and that of other historians, especially Jan Titow and David Farmer.  Searchable bycrop, harvest year, manor, estate, county, region, and any combination of the same.  A "Chronologies" facility also offers a valuable series of reconstructed annual chronologies for each of the principal crops and combinations of the same.

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Reference Tools:  Maps, Topography, and Miscellaneous

Streetmap  Find any place in mainland Britain.  Searchable by street, place name, post code, telephone code, Ordnance Survey coordinates, latitute/longitude, telephone code, etc.

 Gazetteer of Markets and Fairs in England and Wales to 1516  Compiled by Samantha Letters.

 Graesse's Orbis Latinus  An online version of the dictionary of Latin place-names by J. G. Th. Graesse (1909).

 Latin Place-Names  A brief but useful list of modern equivalents of Latin place-names in early printed books.  Searchable both in Latin-to-English and in English-to-Latin.

 Historical Atlas of Europe, AD 1-2000   Christos Nüssli's site provides maps of Europe century-by-century.

 Henry A. Harben, A Dictionary of London (1918)   Online version of this scarce and very useful topographical dictionary of the City of London.

 Sources for Building History  A guide to researching historic buildings in the British Isles.

 IHR's "History On-line" reference sites  The Institute of Historical Research's collection of online dictionaries, directories, maps, encyclopedias, train timetables, and other reference works, plus gateways to museums, libraries, and archives.

 Latin Vulgate Bible (Biblia Sacra Vulgata)  Searchable text of the Vulgate Bible (Douay-Rheims version of 1589-1609, revised 1749-52), from an edition published in Baltimore in 1899.

Timeline of British History, 1066-1487  Includes brief biographies of English kings.

IBIS (Institute for British and Irish Studies): Links    Links to numerous electronic resources in British and Irish Studies.  Based at the University of Southern California.

 Monumental Brass Society, Picture Library  Online library of medieval brasses, including engravings of brasses that no longer survive.  Searchable by name and by topic.
 The Medieval Bestiary  Excellent scholarly site on medieval bestiaries and on animals in the Middle Ages, including a topical encyclopedia, a digital text library, a handlist of important manuscripts, and a bibliography. 

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Medieval Literary, Historical, and Legal Texts:

 Online Primary Document Collections  Extensive collection of hyperlinks to online primary sources worldwide, provided by the library at California State University, San Marcos.

TEAMS Middle English Texts  A large collection of important texts, both literary and historical, with excellent introductions, glosses, and scholarly apparatus.

The Middle English Collection at the Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia   Word-searchable collection of literary and historical sources, including Layamon's Brut, the Paston Letters (ed. Norman Davis, Part I), and an anthology of Chancery English, 1384-1462.

 Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse  Large collection of Middle English texts, including wills, cookbooks,  Chancery documents, gild regulations, surgical and conduct texts, and Paston letters, as well as literary texts.  Based at the University of Michigan.

  Medieval and Modern Thought Text Digitization Project  This project, based at Stanford University, is digitizing a wide range of printed sources, including a number of volumes from the Rolls Series.

  Epistolae: Medieval Women's Latin Letters, 4th-13th cent.  Latin letters with modern English translations and scholarly apparatus.

  Sample Sermons (in Middle English)   A selection of the 1450 sermons published in A Repertorium of Middle English Prose Sermons (2007).

  Jacques Paul Migne, ed.,  Patrologiae Cursus Completus. Series Latina.  All 221 volumes of the PL.

 Renascence Editions  An online repository of works printed in English between the years 1477 and 1799 .

 Gallica  A vast online library of the cultural patrimony of France, drawn from the collections of the Bibliothèque nationale de France and of several major French museums, and comprising tens of thousands of historic texts, scholarly articles, images, sound archives, and other material.   Texts of interest to English medievalists include chronicles and other sources edited by Thomas Duffus Hardy, Thomas Wright, and Henry Thomas Riley; Rymer's Foedera; etc.  Click on "Recherche" to search the index.  (Note that an asterisk can be used as a "wild card" to truncate search-terms.)

 Literature of the French Middle Ages  Numerous links to collections of texts and to related sites.

 Online Medieval and Classical Library (OMACL)  Word-searchable collection of full-text works of classical and medieval literature.  All except the Middle English texts are in modern English translations.

 EEBO: Early English Books Online  Online index and full-text access to more than 125,000 titles listed in Pollard and Redgrave's  A short-title catalogue of books printed in England, Scotland and Ireland, and of English books printed abroad, 1475-1640, Wing's continuation of Pollard and Redgrave (1641-1700), and the Thomason Tracts (1640-1661).

 Dana F. Sutton, Library of Humanistic Texts, and Analytic Bibliography of On-Line Neo-Latin Texts  Alphabetical hyperlinks to thousands of online texts and facsimiles.  The focus is on "Latin texts written during the Renaissance and later," but these include numerous medieval texts as well.  In progress.

Eurodocs: Primary Historical Documents from Western Europe  Links to numerous texts, some in their original language, some in modern translation, some in both. Searchable by period and country. Very useful.

WWW Medieval Resources  Medieval texts in their original languages.

 Internet Medieval Sourcebook  Thousands of medieval texts (most excerpted, some complete), mostly in modern English translation.  An outstanding  resource, created by Paul Halsall.

 Medieval Source Material on the Internet  Excellent collection of links, from an English genealogy site.

 T. F. Tout, Chapters in the Administrative History of Medieval England: The Wardrobe, the Chambers and the Small Seals  Scanned version of Tout's six-volume study of (1920–33), including his transcriptions of the earliest surviving Wardrobe account (5 Jan. 1224 - 10 April 1227) in vol. 1, pp. 233-8; the household ordinance of Westminster (13 Nov. 1279) in vol. 2, pp. 158-63;and the Walton ordinances (12 July 1338), in vol. 3, pp. 143-50.

  Medieval English government documents  Part of a genealogy site that includes links to major document series such as the printed Calendars of Patent Rolls, Close Rolls, Fine Rolls, etc.  An excellent resource.

  Henry III Fine Rolls Project  This project, in cooperation with The National Archives, is producing a calendar of the Fine Rolls from 1216 to 1248, together with facsimiles of the original rolls.   It hopes eventually to extend the coverage to 1272.  In progress.

 Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1216-1452   Scanned, searchable version of the printed calendars, provided by Prof. G. R. Boynton and the University of Iowa Libraries.

British History Online  Digitized collections of major primary sources, including the Calendar of Close Rolls (Hen. III-Hen. VII), the Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, and the Calendar of State Papers, Venice (1202-1676).  A joint project of the Institute of Historical Research and the History of Parliament Trust.
 English Legal History, 12th-14th cent.  Collection of texts, arranged topically.

 Bracton Online  Online version, in Latin and English, of
the treatise on English law known as De Legibus Et Consuetudinibus Angliæ (On the Laws and Customs of England).  Traditionally attributed to "Bracton" (Henry of Bratton, c. 1210-1268), more recently it has been re-dated to the 1220's-30's, with later additions (the latest by Bratton himself).

 Index to the English Year Books, 1268-1535  Searchable index to the printed Year Books, the law reports of medieval England, by David J. Seipp.  In progress.

  The Anglo-American Legal Tradition (AALT): English Court Records, 1216 - 1660   Digitized images of legal records, mostly from the courts of Common Pleas, Exchequer, and King's Bench, for select years.  Outstanding resource, provided by Robert C. Palmer by agreement with The National Archives. The TNA series currently licensed to the site and available in whole or in part are CP40, CP25(1), KB26, KB27, KB29, E13, E159, E368, E123, E124, E125, E126, JUST 1, C33, REQ1, CHES14, and DL5.  A few other series (including C1) are licensed but not yet begun. In progress.

  Index to Common Pleas rolls (TNA: CP 40/-), 1399-1500   This index, by Jonathan Mackman and Matthew Stevens, was first produced as part of the AHRC-funded 'Londoners and the Law' project (AHRC AR119247). It was further augmented by the 'London women and the economy before and after the Black Death' project (ESRC RES-00-22-3343) and with funding from the Marc Fitch Fund.  Originally published by Centre for Metropolitan History, London, 2010.  To see digital images of the rolls themselves, go to the AALT website (above).

  Abstracts of unpublished Feet of Fines before 1509   Abstracts in English of unpublished English feet of fines (The National Archives: class CP 25/-) to 1509, each entry with a hot link to the relevant image of the manuscript posted online by AALT (Anglo-American Legal Tradition).  Extremely useful.

  Court rolls of Ramsey, Hepmangrove, and Bury, 1268-1600  Calendar, in English, by Edwin DeWindt, of dozens of surviving court rolls and the records of one eyre (1287) for the East Midlands town of Ramsey, its suburb of Hepmangrove, and the nearby village of Bury.  An exceptional resource.

  Taxatio Database of England and Wales, 1291-2  Database of the very detailed ecclesiastical tax assessment of England and Wales, carried out in 1291-2 by order of Pope Nicholas IV.  In progress.

 Magna Carta (Latin, 1215)  An English translation by Xavier Hildegarde, with an online glossary.

Return to Links

Medieval and Early Modern Household and Conduct Texts:

 Paul Lacroix, Manners, Custom and Dress During the Middle Ages and During the Renaissance Period  (in English translation, London and New York, ?1874)

 Isidore of Seville (c. 560-636), Etymologiae, Book XX: De penu et instrumentis domesticis et rusticis (Latin, early 7th cent.)   From the edition of Isidori Hispalensis Episcopi Etymologiarum sive Originum libri XX, ed. W. M. Lindsay (Oxford 1911).  This final section of Isidore's etymological encyclopedia discusses tableware and kitchenware, other household furnishings, vehicles, farm and garden tools, and horse equipment.

  Charlemagne, Capitulary De villis (Latin, early 9th cent.)  In a modern English translation by James Harvey Robinson (1904).

Asnapium: An Inventory of One of Charlemagne's Estates (Latin, c. 811) In a modern English translation by Frederic Austin Ogg (1907).

 Walahfrid Strabo, Hortulus (Latin, c. 842-848)  A Carolingian monk's description of his garden.  This website provides the original Latin text with a clickable modern German translation; the text can be searched for references to individual plants or can be read straight through.

  Monasteriales indicia: Monastic sign-language (English, mid 11th cent.)  127 signs (including signs for food items and tableware), used by Benedictine monks at times of the day when speech was forbidden, from the Old English text in British Library MS Cotton Tiberius A. III, discussed by Juan C. Conde-Silvestre, in "The code and context of Monasteriales Indicia: a semiotic analysis of late Anglo-Saxon monastic sign language," Studia Anglica Posnaniensia: International Review of English Studies, 36 (Jan. 2001), 145-169.

  Dental hygiene recipes from a variety of sources (11th-17th cent.)  Eleven recipes for mouthwashes, teeth-whiteners, breath-fresheners, and toothpastes, in modern English translation.

 Burgundio Pisano (trans.), Liber de vindemiis (Latin, 2nd half of 12th cent.)  Latin translation of a Greek treatise on harvesting grapes, winemaking, and the care and emendation of wine, by a Pisan who spent several years in Constantinople.  Edited by Francesco Buonamici in Annali delle Università Toscane, 28 (1908).

 The Pipe Roll of the Bishopric of Winchester (1208-9) (Latin), ed. Hubert Hall (1903); and  The Pipe Roll of the Bishopric of Winchester (1210-11) (Latin), ed. N. R. Holt (1873).  Read these entire volumes, or click here for an English translation of the entry for the manor of Downton, Wiltshire (1208-9) from Roy C. Cave & Herbert H. Coulson, A Source Book for Medieval Economic History (1936; rpt 1965).

 Henri d'Andeli, La bataille des vins (French, early 13th cent.)  Poem describing the respective merits of various wines (Ms. Paris, B.N. fr. 837, ff. 231-232v; and Ms. Berne, Bibliothèque municipale, 113, f. 200v) From the edition by H. Héron (1881).  Click here for a partial parallel translation into modern French, by Bernard Gineste.

  John of Garland, Dictionarius (Latin, early 13th cent.)  Not a household or conduct text, but a manual for teaching Latin, by John of Garland, an English teacher of Latin grammar in Paris.  He wrote it sometime between 1218 and 1229, mostly in the form of a walking-tour of Paris, and it contains numerous references to shops and vendors of all kinds, including food-sellers, as well as descriptions of household furnishings.  Garland added a commentary with French glosses around 1229-30 while in Toulouse.  The Latin text here is based on the edition by Thomas Wright in A Volume of Vocabularies (1857), with a modern English translation by Barbara Blatt Rubin.

  Selected correspondence of Ralph de Neville (Latin, early 13th cent.)  Sample letters from the extensive surviving correspondence of Ralph de Neville (d. 1244), Bishop of Chichester and Chancellor of Henry III, in the English translations published by W. H. Blaauw in 1850, and  with some Latin transcriptions by Blaauw and by W. W. Shirley.  Among them are letters concerning the management of Neville's estates and the provisioning of his houses.  See also Additional correspondence of Ralph de Neville.

  Guillaume de la Villeneuve, Les crieries de Paris (French, 13th cent.)  Poem recording the cries of the street-sellers of Paris, many offering raw and cooked foods (Ms. Paris, B.N. fr. 837, ff. 246-7).   Original text, from the edition of E. Barbazan et D.Méon (1808), with a modern French translation by Madeleine Jeay.  Click here for an online dictionary to this text and to other French poems of the 12th-16th centuries.  (If the Hyperlistes site is unavailable, click here for another copy of the poem .)

 Bishop Robert Grosseteste's Rules (Anglo-Norman and Latin, 1240 x 1242)  English translation by Elizabeth Lamond (in Walter of Henley's Husbandry, 1890), of the household rule written by Bishop Grosseteste for the widowed Countess of Lincoln.  Click here for another copy.

 L'ornement des dames/Ornatus mulierum (Anglo-Norman, 13th cent.)  Extracts, in modern English translation, from a collection of beauty recipes  (Bodleian Library, MS Ashmole 1470, ff. 276r-279v) edited by Pierre Ruelle (1967).

 La bataille de Caresme et de Charnage (French, 13th cent.)  Poem describing a 'battle' between Lent and Carnival (Paris, BnF Ms. Fr. 837, ff. 21-24).  From the edition by Grégoire Lozinski (1933).

 D'un mercier (French, 13th cent.)  Anonymous poem describing a mercer's wares (Ms. Paris, BnF fr. 19152, f. 42v-43).  Original text from the edition of Philippe Ménard (1970), with a modern French translation by Madeleine Jeay.

  Diet rules (Dutch, 1252)  From a manuscript in the Bodleian Library (Junius 83), edited by A. Van Loey (Middelnederlands Leerboek, 1947), and translated into English by Eli Steenput. 

  Assize of bread and ale (Assisa panis et cervisie) (Latin, 1256)  In English translation, from Statutes of the Realm, ed. A. Luders, 11 vols. (London, 1810-28), vol. 1, pp. 199-200 (taken from British Library, MS Cotton Claudius D. ii, fol. 252v).  For the date of the assize and discussion, see James Davis, "Baking for the Common Good: A Reassessment of the Assize of Bread in Medieval England," Economic History Review, 57:3 (2004), 465-502.

  Household account of Eleanor, Countess of Leicester (Latin, 1265)  From the edition by T. H. Turner in Manners and Household Expenses of England in the Thirteenth and Fifteenth Centuries (1841).  Eleanor de Montfort's household account, from 19 February to 29 August 1265, is on pp. 1-85, with Notes and Appendices on pp. 86-92.

 Walter de Bibbesworth, Le Tretiz (Anglo-Norman, c. 1250-1300)   A verse treatise on country life and household duties, designed to instruct English children ("beaus duz enfauns," line 183) in French vocabulary.  Edited by William Rothwell (1990), from Cambridge University Library MS Gg. 1. 1.

 Bonvesin de la Riva of Milan (c. 1240 - c. 1315), De quinquaginta curialitatibus ad mensam (Italian [Milanese], later 13th cent.)  Click on "Les bonnes manières de table" for this extract from De la Riva's verse guide to table manners, in a modern French translation ("Les 50 contenances de table").  Click here and scroll down for the original text .

 Roman de la rose: Duenna's advice on table manners for young women (French, late 13th cent.)   From Jean "Clopinel" de Meun's continuation of the poem by Guillaume de Lorris, in English translation by F. S. Ellis, The Romance of the Rose (1900).

 Bishop Grosseteste's Rules, Walter of Henley, Seneschaucy, and Husbandry (Anglo-Norman and Latin, c. 1240-1300)   Extracts, in English translation,  from four English treatises on household and estate administration, edited by Elizabeth Lamond in Walter of Henley's Husbandry (1890).  Click here for a glossary of technical terms used in these four treatises.

De l'Oustillement au villain (French, 13th cent.)  This anonymous poem (from Ms. Paris, B.N. fr. 837, fol. 119v) includes a description of the furnishings and utensils to be found in a peasant's house.

 Walter of Henley (Anglo-Norman, late 13th cent.)  English translation, from  Elizabeth Lamond's edition (1890).  Click here for another copy.

 Seneschaucie (Anglo-Norman, late 13th cent.)  English translation, from Elizabeth Lamond's edition (1890).  Click here for another copy.

 Husbandry (Anglo-Norman, late 13th cent.)  English translation,  from Elizabeth Lamond's edition (1890). Click here for another copy.

  Payments made by the executors of Eleanor of Castile, Queen of England (Latin, 1291-1293)  From the edition by T. H. Turner in Manners and Household Expenses of England in the Thirteenth and Fifteenth Centuries (1841).  The payments by Queen Eleanor's executors are on pp. 93-145.

 Household expenses of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, 1313-14 (English, 1603)  From John Stow's Survay of London (2nd edn, 1603).

  Antonio Pucci [c. 1310-1388], Proprietà di Mercato Vecchio (Italian, 14th cent.)  Pucci's poem describes the offerings of the Old Market of Florence.

 Geoffroi des Nés, La Desputoison du vin et de l'iaue (French, ?14th cent.)  Poem on the relative merits of wine and water (Ms. Paris, BnF fr. 24432, ff. 26v-29), from the edition of Achille Jubinal (1839).

 Account roll (compotus) of the manor of Presteigne (Latin, 1384-5)  Includes a photograph and Latin transcription of the beginning of  the roll, with a modern English translation.

  Eustache Deschamps, Ballade 350 (French, late 14th cent.)     Poem lamenting the unpleasant fare of Lent.  Edited by Queux de Saint-Hilaire (1878), vol. 3, pp. 75-76, from MS. Paris, B.N. fr. 840, f.116. (If the above link does not work, click here for another copy of the text.)

 Eustache Deschamps, Pour les nouveaulx mariez et de leur mesnage  (Ballade 1451, French, late 14th cent. )
Poem describing newlyweds' household goods and furnishings, ed. Gaston Raynaud (1891-1901),  vol. VIII,  pp. 137-38.

  A Collection of Ordinances and Regulations for the Government of the Royal Household . . . Also, Receipts in Ancient Cookery (London: Society of Antiquaries, 1790)  Valuable collection of royal household regulations from the reign of Edward III to that of William and Mary, together with an edition of British Library, MS Arundel 334.

 Some medieval English medical recipes (English, late 14th- early 15th cent.)   A selection of heath and beauty recipes, from British Library, Harley MS 2378.  Transcribed by Martha Carlin.

 The Ménagier of Paris: The art of gardening (French, c. 1393)  English translation from Eileen Power's influential but incomplete and now superseded edition (The Goodman of Paris, 1928), pp. 195-204(For an authoritative English translation of the entire work, see The Good Wife's Guide (Le Menagier de Paris): A Medieval Household Book, trans. Gina L. Greco and Christine M. Rose (Cornell University Press, 2009).

 Treasure roll of Richard II (French, 1398-9)  Website describing a detailed inventory of the English king's jewels and plate, made at the very end of his reign.

  Expenses of Aragonese ambassadors in England (Latin, 1415).   Food, lodging and travel accounts, in English translation, from Analogues of Chaucer's Pilgrimage, ed. R. E. G. Kirk and F. J. Furnivall (1908), pp. 5-7.

 A Generall rule to teche euery man that is willynge for to lerne . . . to serve a lorde or mayster (English, 15th cent.)   How to serve meals in a great household, from British Library, MS Add. 37969, ff. 2-8, edited by R. W. Chambers (1914).

 William Wey, What to bring on a sea-voyage to Jerusalem (English, 15th cent.)  From The Itineraries of William Wey (1857).

Will of Joan Buckland, of Edgcott, Northamptonshire (English and Latin, 1450)  This is Document 1 in an online collection of 63 wills from the diocese of Lincoln, 1450-1544.  Buckland's will includes a detailed list of her household effects.  From Andrew Clark, ed., Lincoln Diocese Documents, 1450-1544 (1914).

  Frederick J. Furnivall, ed., Manners and Meals in Olden Time [also known as] The babees book (English, Latin, and French, 15th-16th cent.) The full title of  this collection is: The babees book, Aristotle's A B C, Urbanitatis, Stans puer ad mensam, The lytille childrenes lytil boke, The bokes of nurture of Hugh Rhodes and John Russell, Wynkyn de Worde's Boke of keruynge, The booke of demeanor, The boke of curtasye, Seager's Schoole of vertue, &c. &c. with some French and Latin poems on like subjects, and some forewords on education in early England (Early English Text Society, original series, vol. 32, 1868).  The above link is to a digitized version of this book that includes convenient hotlinks to individual texts, but which omits portions of the volume, including Part II.  For a complete version of the book, click here

 Urbanitatis (English, c.1460)  Conduct manual for boys in verse,  from the edition of  Frederick J. Furnivall in The Babees Book (1868), pp. 13-15.

 John Russell, Book of Nurture (English, c. 1460)  Extract, in modern English translation, concerning the duties of the panter, butler, and carver in a noble household.  From The Babees' Book: Medieval Manners for the Young: Done into Modern English From Dr. Furnivall's Texts, by Edith Rickert.

  Household expenses of Sir John Howard, later Duke of Norfolk (English, 1462-1469)  From the edition by T. H. Turner in Manners and Household Expenses of England in the Thirteenth and Fifteenth Centuries (1841).  Howard's household accounts are on pp. 149-621.

 Olivier de la Marche, "Le service du vin," from L'état de la maison du duc Charles de Bourgogne dit le Hardy (French, c. 1467-77.)  Click on "Le service du vin selon Olivier de la Marche" for a modern French translation by Bruno Laurioux of this extract from De la Marche's Mémoires.

  Recipes for making colored wax and ink (English, 15th cent.)  From Huntington Library, MS HM 1336.

 Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York (English, March 1502 - March 1503); and Wardrobe Accounts of Edward IV (English, April - September 1480)   Edited by Nicholas Harris Nicolas (1830).

 The Little Children's Little Book (English, c. 1480)   Guide to manners for boys, from The Babees Book, ed. Frederick J. Furnivall (1868), pp. 16-24.

 Un dittié des choses qui faillent en menage et en mariage (French, ?15th cent.) Poem on the things that one needs in a household (Ms. Paris, BnF fr. 12483, ff. 217-218).  Original text from the edition of Achille Jubinal (1842), with a modern French translation by Madeleine Jeay.

 Watelet de tous mestiers (French, ?15th cent.) Poem on the various trades and crafts (Versailles, Bibliothèque municipale 4 Mi 162).  Original text from the edition of Anatole de Montaiglon et James de Rothschild (1878), with a modern French translation by Madeleine Jeay.

 The Babees' Book: Medieval Manners for the Young (English, 15th-16th cent.)  The greater part of Furnivall's Babees Book and Queene Elizabethes Achademy, in a modern English translation by Edith Rickert and L. J. Naylor (1908).

 "Ballad of a Tyrannical Husband" (English, 15th cent.)  A farmer exchanges chores with his wife.

 Les honneurs de la table (French, 1491)  Photograph of a manuscript  of the second of three known French verse guides to table manners, inserted into the end of a book of hours written in 1491.  Paris, Département de manuscrits, Rothschild VI. 3. 6.

 The Treatyse of Fishing with an Angle (English, 1496)  The former attribution of this treatise to Dame Juliana Berners, c. 1456, is no longer tenable, since a fragment of the text survives in a manuscript of the mid 14th century. The modern English translation offered here includes illustrations of fishing rods and other fishing implements from Wynkyn de Worde's printed edition of 1496.  Click here for a  transcript of the edition of 1561 ; and here for  another modern English translation.

 Les Cris de Paris (French, c. 1500)  Photographs of four of the collection of 18 colored woodcuts illustrating the cries of the street-sellers of Paris (Bibliothèque nationale de France, Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal, RES EST-264).

The Boke of Kervynge (English, 1508)  Treatise, printed by Wynkyn de Worde, on carving and serving food, with recipes for hippocras and sauces, seasonal menus, and the duties of various servants.

  Hans Brask, Calendarium Oeconomicum (Swedish, 1513-27?)    (If this link fails, click here for another version, or here for an archived version.)  Brask (1464-1538) became bishop of Linköping in 1513.  The excerpts given here from his household manual list seasonal menus for his household and seasonal duties of his servants, month by month; other excerpts list menus for New Year's week (also, click here for a fuller archived version), and servants' rations (click here for an archived version).
  If, when you click on links to this site, you are transferred to its main menu, you can find the materials listed here by clicking on "Bills of Fare" and "Library." Edited by Martin Skjoldebrand, with English translations, from an edition of the original manuscript published by Per Kylander in "Calendarium oeconomicum avskrivet ur en gammal på Linköpings bibliotek förvarad hushållsbok (fr. 1513--27) efter biskop Brask," Linköpings bibliotheks handlingar, I (1793), 263-74.  See also Hans Hildebrand, ed., "Matordningen i biskop Hans Brasks hus," Konglike Vitterhets Historie och Antiqvitets Akademiens Måanadsblad, 157 (1885), pp. 1-21, and 159 (1885), pp. 141-2.  See also a summary of the seasonal menus and tasks by Horace Marryat (1862).

 Inventory of John Asserby (English, 1527) From Andrew Clark, ed., Lincoln Diocese Documents, 1450-1544 (1914).  (Click on "SIXTY-THREE LINCOLN DIOCESE DOCUMENTS" and either search for "Asserby" or scroll down to document XXIII.)

 Master [John] Fitzherbert's Book of Husbandry (English, first edition, 1523)   A housewife's duties.  (For a similar extract  from Fitzherbert,
 click here.)

 Rolls of expenses of Sir John Nevile of Chete for his daughters' weddings and at assizes (English, 1526-30)  From Samuel Pegge's edition of The Forme of Curye (1780).  Click here for a description by Pegge of the rolls (pp. 163-164).  The expenses are for: the wedding of Nevile's daughter Mary to Gervas Clifton, 17 Jan.  1530 (pp. 165-170); the marriage of Nevile's daughter Elizabeth to Roger Rockley, 14 Jan. 1526 (pp. 171-178);  Sir John's expenses as sheriff of Yorkshire at the Lent assizes, 19 Hen. VIII (pp. 179-182); and Sir John's expenses at the Lammas assizes, 20 Hen. VIII (pp. 183-185).

 Expenses of the anniversary feast of the Guild of the Holy Trinity, Luton (English, 1527-8)  From Samuel Pegge's edition of The Forme of Curye (1780), pp. 186-188.

 Hugh Rhodes, The Boke of Nurture and Schoole of good manners for man and for Chylde (English, 5th edn, 1577)   A courtesy book in verse by Hugh Rhodes, "of the Kinges Chappell" (fl. 1540).

 Thomas Tusser, A hundreth good pointes of husbandrie (English, 1557)  Guide for farmers and their wives, listing each month's labors.

 New Year's gifts received by Queen Elizabeth I, 1561-1600 (English)   Extracts from contemporary accounts, taken from John Nichols, ed., The Progresses and Public Processions of Queen Elizabeth (3 vols., 1823).

 A London household's dinner conversation, from The French Schoolmaster (French and English, 1573)  Excerpt from a French-English conversation manual, by Claudius Hollyband.

 Manual de mujeres en el cual se contienen muchas y diversas recetas muy buenas (Spanish, 16th cent.)  Contains culinary, medicinal, and household recipes.  Click here for an  English translation of a selection of the recipes.  

 Sir Thomas Cockaine, A Short Treatise of Hunting (English, 1591)  How to hunt the fox, hare, roe, stag, buck, otter, and marten, with a brief description of signals to be sounded on the hunting horn.

 Anthony Browne, Viscount Montague: "A Booke of Orders and Rules" (English, 1595)  Viscount Montague's household ordinances, published by Sir Sibbald David Scott, Bart., in Sussex Archaeological Collections, 7 (1854), pp. 173-212. 

 Paul Hentzner, Description of Elizabeth I and her court at Greenwich in 1598 (Latin, 1612)  This extract, translated into English, describes the queen, her reception of visitors, and how her meals were served.   It is taken from Horace Walpole, ed., and Richard Bentley, trans., Paul Hentzner's Travels in England During the Reign of Queen Elizabeth (1797), pp. 33-37.   Click here for the  complete text  of Hentzner's Travels in England, together with Sir Robert Naunton's Fragmenta Regalia (1797, rpt 1892).

  "F.B.," Rules . . . For Children to Write By (English, 1611)  Extract from a manual of penmanship, including recipes for making ink.

 Ben Jonson, To Penshurst (English, c. 1616)  Poem praising the model household of the Sidneys at Penshurst Place, Kent.

 John Taylor, The Praise of Hemp-Seed  (English, 1630)  Poem examining the uses of hemp-seed and the trades and industries that depended on its products, including those of the mercers, grocers, vintners, drapers, haberdashers, tailors, skinners, dyers, apothecaries,  comfit-makers, sailors, shoemakers, saddlers, and paper-makers.

 Izaak Walton and Charles Cotton, The Compleat Angler (English, 1653 (Part I) and 1676 (Part II)

 Thomas Barker, Barker's Delight: or, The Art of Angling (English, 1659)  This is the second edition of Barker's work; according to the title page it is "much enlarged."  The full title reads: BARKER'S DELIGHT: OR, THE ART OF A N G L I N G.  Wherein are discovered many rare Secrets very necessary to be known by all that delight in that Recreation, both for catching the Fish, and dressing thereof.

 Colonel Robert Venables, The Experienced Angler (English, 1662)  The full title reads:  The Experienced Angler: or Angling Improved.  Being A general Discourse of Angling; Imparting many of the aptest wayes and choicest Experiments for the taking of most sorts of Fish in Pond or River.

Hannah Woolley, The Gentlewoman's Companion: or, A Guide to the Female Sex (English, 1675)   Begins with chapters on the education and deportment of women, and follows with culinary recipes, medicinal recipes, advice to servants, model letters, and witty dialogues.

 Mary Evelyn, The Ladies Dressing-Room Unlock'd (English, 1690)  Delightful satire in verse of a guide to manners and fashion, including a glossary of terms concerning dress, by John Evelyn's daughter. The full title reads: The Ladies Dressing-Room Unlock'd, and Her Toilette Spread, Together, with a Fop-Dictionary, and a Rare and Incomparable Receipt to Make Pig, or Puppidog-Water for the Face. 

 The Household Book of Lady Grisell Baillie, 1692-1733 (English)   Published by the Scottish Historical Society in 1911.

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Medieval and Early Modern Cookery: Resources

 Online Culinary History Network   An online research library and network of historical culinary texts, dating from earliest times to the year 1700.  Includes a chronological list of surviving texts.  In progress.

 Online Cookbooks  Useful collection of links to webbed versions of medieval culinary texts in their original languages and in translation.

 Livres de cuisine en Europe médiévale   A very useful survey of medieval European culinary texts.  Click here for surveys of the texts arranged chronologically  or  by country or language .  Part of a French food site called Maître Chiquart.

 The Foods of England project   Aims to present "Every traditional dish, every original receipt, every classic cookbook."  Currently includes cookbooks from c. 1390 to the 1960s, and thousands of individual recipes.  In progress.

 Cindy Renfrow, Glossary of Medieval and Renaissance Culinary Terms  Extremely useful; in progress.  Click here for a similar  medieval culinary glossary in Dutch  (with English translations), compiled by Ria Jansen-Sieben, Elly Cockx-Indestege, and others.  Click here for a very useful glossary of  medieval Italian and English culinary terms .

 Historische Kochbücher, Originalrezepte und kulinarische Texte vor 1600 online  German site with links to online medieval and early modern cookery texts, arranged by language.  There is an archived version of the earlier, fuller, site at: .

 Portal der Pflanzen des Mittelalters (Medieval Plant Survey)  German-language site, with limited introduction in English.  Provides brief descriptions of 57 manuscripts containing cookery collections in Middle High German, together with access to many of the texts (some 2725 culinary recipes, as of May 2011).  The culinary recipes are word-searchable, but only by registered users (registration is free).  There are also databases of medieval depictions of plants, and of vernacular plant names (currently Old English, Modern English, Old High German, Middle High German, and New High German).  In progress.

Thomas Gloning, Monumenta Culinaria et Diaetetica Historica (Corpus of culinary & dietetic texts of Europe from the Middle Ages to 1800)  Previously based at the University of Marburg; from September 2006 at the University of Vienna.  Important electronic collection of medieval culinary and dietetic texts, many of them in German.

 Compare Diet  Website that compares historic and modern dietetic regimens, including Hippocratic, Ayurvedic, Chinese, medieval European, and modern American.  In French.

 William Rothwell, Articles on Anglo-Norman food vocabulary   Online versions of articles originally published in linguistics journals.

 British Library website on Medieval Food  Part of a BL website called "Books for Cooks."  Features photographs, transcriptions and modern English translations of  Middle English cookery manuscripts in the library's collection, and descriptions of the food of the period. See also the associated websites on  1500s Food, 1600s Food, 1700s Food, 1800s Food, and 1900s Food Unfortunately, the transcriptions and translations of the medieval texts are full of errors, and there are similar errors in the transcriptions of the 16th-century texts.  No translations are provided to post-medieval texts.

 Tom Jaine (ed.), Glossary of 17th- and 18th-century English cooking terms   Composite of glossaries originally prepared by Elizabeth David, Alan Davidson, Caroline Davidson, and Jaine himself to accompany reprints of early modern cookbooks.  An outstanding resource.

 Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages  An exceptionally useful online encyclopedia of herbs and spices.  In English or German.

 Spices in Medieval Europe  Brief but useful discussion of the major medieval spices, with comments on their use in medieval recipe collections.  Part of the "Maître Chiquart" Web site.  In English.

 John Munro, "The Consumption of Spices and Their Costs in Late-Medieval and Early-Modern Europe: Luxuries or Necessities?"   Includes graphs on the prices of spices, and their affordability on a master craftsman's wages in 15th-century London.

 Viking foods  Useful, fully-documented discussion of the Viking diet and Viking cookery, with a few sample recipes adapted for modern kitchens, by Christie Ward.  In English.

  Ivan Day's website (  Excellent photos, recipes, links, and information concerning medieval-Edwardian British cookery, and how to make it.

  Karl Hagen, "The Economics of Medieval English Brewing" Brief essay on the fundamentals of medieval ale-brewing, with an appended handout on the granary account of the brewhouse of St. Paul's Cathedral, London, for 1286. 

  Martyn Cornell, "How to Brew Like an Anglo-Norman Knight"  Very brief essay on thirtheenth-century ale-brewing, as described in Walter de Bibbesworth's Treatiz.  Includes the relevant section of Bibbesworth's rhymed text and a translation, originally published in
The Curiosities of Ale and Beer (1886) by "John Bickerdyke" (the collective pseudonym of Charles Henry Cook, John Greville Fennel, and J. M. Dixon.)  

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Medieval Culinary Texts (500-1500)

 Anthimus, De observatione ciborum (Latin, 6th cent.)   Treatise on food and diet in the form of a letter addressed to Theuderic [I], king of the Franks, by a Greek physician resident at the court of Theodoric the Ostrogoth.

Hugh of St. Victor, Didascalicon, Book II, chap. 25, "On Hunting" (Latin, 1120s)  Although ostensibly on hunting, this brief chapter in Hugh of St. Victor's encyclopedic survey includes a more general essay on the various classifications of food.  In Latin.

  Poitevin sauce recipes (Latin, c. 1150 x 1175)  The discovery was announced in April 2013 of a small collection of recipes for "various kinds of Poitevin sauces" ("diuersa genera pictauiensium salsamentorum").  They were identified by Professor Faith Wallis of McGill University in a manuscript (MS 51, fol. 39r-v) now in Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and formerly owned (by 1391) by Durham Cathedral Priory.  The culinary recipes are embedded within a collection of medical recipes (fols. 27r-46v).  According to a brief article in Petits Propos Culinaires (PPC 98, August 2013), there are some ten sauce recipes in all, "for meats ranging from chicken, ‘hen in winter’, beef, duck, pork, ram (presumably a ‘wether’ or castrated male sheep), lamb, sausage and ‘tiny little fish [minuti pisculi]. There is also a recipe for conserved ginger, with detailed instructions for preparation: soaking in water, cutting into slices, cooking down with honey, rubbing honey in by hand, and continuing the process with other flavourings including spikenard."

  Regimen sanitatis Salerni (Latin, ?12th-13th cent.)   Health and diet regimen, in verse.  Click here for an  English translation by Thomas Paynel (1535) .  Click here for Sir John Harington's translation, The Englishmans Doctor (English, 1608) . His full title reads: The Englishmans Doctor, Or,The School of Salerne,Or, Physical observations for the perfect Preserving of the body of Man in continual health.  Click here for a modern English translation from Patricia Willett Cummins, A Critical Edition of Le Regime Tresutile et tresproufitable pour Conserver et Garder la Santé du Corps Humain (1976).  James L. Matterer supplies a useful introduction to the online translation.

 De flore dietarum (Latin, early 13th cent.)  Salernitan treatise on the humoral properties of various foods and drinks, compiled at the beginning of the 13th century, and originally attributed to Constantinus Africanus.  Edited by Piero Cantalupo (1992).

Libellus de arte coquinaria ("The Harpestreng cookbook," Codex K,  Latin and Danish, 13th cent.)  The oldest known medieval Western recipe collection, originally written in Latin or French, probably in the late 12th or early 13th century, and later translated from Middle Low German into Danish, possibly by the royal physician Henrik Harpestraeng (d. 1244).  Codex K (Copenhagen, Kongelige Bibliotek, Ny kgl. Samling, nr. 66, 8v°, ff. 140r-146v), with 25 recipes, dates from c. 1300; it was edited by M. Kristensen (1908-20).  Click here for photographs of Codex K.   Click here for  Codex Q (Copenhagen, Kongelige Bibliotek, Ny kgl. Samling, nr. 70 R, 8v°, 5ff.), another Danish translation, with 31 recipes, dating from c. 1350.  It was edited by C. Molbech in Historisk Tidsskrift, vol. 5 (København, 1844), pp. 540 - 546.  A German version of this recipe collection is embedded in the 15th-century Mittelniederdeutsches Kochbuch (see below).

"Anonymous Andalusian cookbook": Kitab al-tabikh fi al-Maghrib wal-Andalus  (Arabic, early 13th cent.)  A collection of 543 recipes, translated here into English by Charles Perry, from the edition by Ambrosio Huici Miranda (La Cocina Hispano-Magrebi en la Epoca Almohade, 1965).  Click here for another copy of Perry's English translation; click here for a searchable index of this collection.

 Abu l-Hasan 'Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Abí l-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abí Bakr ibn Razin al-Tuyibi al-Andalusí, Fedalat Al-Jiwan fi tayyibat al-ta'am wa-l-alwan (Arabic, c. 1228-1243)  Extracts, in a modern Spanish translation, from a collection of 441 recipes written in Andalusia.  From a doctoral thesis by Fernando de la Granja Santamaría, "La cocina arabigoandaluza según un manuscrito inédito" (Madrid, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras,  1960).  Click here for the full text in Arabic, published by Muhammad B. A. Benchekroun in La Cuisine andalou-marocaine au XIIIe siècle (Beirut, 1984).

 Aldobrandino da Siena (Aldebrandin de Sienne): Two chapters from La flours et la rose de toute medicine et fisisque, later known as Le Régime du corps (French, end of 13th - beginning of 14th cent.)  The first two chapters of  Part III: De totes manieres de blé, et du pain c'on en fait, and De totes manieres de buverages.  From the edition by Louis Landouzy and Roger Pépin (1911).  Click here for a  photograph of an early manuscript (Paris, BnF, Arsenal, manuscrit 2510, fol. 49v), and here for another manuscript (Paris, BnF,  Département des manuscrits, Français 12323, fol. 128v).

Viandier (French, second half of 13th cent.)  This website contains discussions, transcriptions, and translations (into modern French) of all four extant medieval manuscripts of this celebrated French recipe collection.  The earliest manuscript (Bibliothèque cantonale du Valais, Sion, S 108) was written c. 1250 x 1300 on a parchment roll and contains 133 recipes.  Click here to see the edition of the Sion MS by Paul Aebischer (1953) and original text with a facing translation in modern French.  The text was revised in the late 1300s and attributed to the royal cook Guillaume Tirel, known as "Taillevent" (c. 1315-95).  Three manuscript versions survive: one with 145 recipes, in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris (MS fonds français 19,791; before 1392; c. 1380, according to Jérôme Pichon); one with 156 recipes in the Vatican Library (MS Regina 776 [formerly 233 and 2159], fols. 48r-85r; c. 1400-50); one with 141 recipes in the Bibliothèque Mazarine, Paris (MS 3636, formerly MS 1253, folios 219r-228r; 15th cent.).  A fourth manuscript (Saint-Lô, Archives de la Manche, Série E, Archives de la baronnie de la Haye-du-Puits, fols. 39v-46r; 15th cent.) was destroyed in a fire on D-Day (6 June 1944).  Click here for the text of the Bibliothèque Nationale manuscript, with a facing translation in modern French; Click here for the text of the Vatican manuscript, from the edition of Jérôme Pichon and Georges Vicaire (1892), pp. 73-136; with an English translation by James Prescott.  Click here for a searchable index to Prescott's translation. Click here for the text of the Vatican manuscript with facing translation in modern French.  Click here for the text of the Mazarine manuscript, with a facing translation in modern French.  Click here for a transcript of the printed edition of c. 1485/90, which contains a large collection of 15th-century recipes grafted onto a selection of the earlier Viandier recipes (221 recipes in all), together with some menus dating from 1455.  This transcript is taken from Jérôme  Pichon and Georges Vicaire, eds., Le Viandier de Guillaume Tirel dit Taillevent (Paris, 1892; reprint Geneva: Slatkine, 1967, and Luzarches: Daniel Morcrette, n.d.), pp. 141-199 ("Le Viandier de Taillevent -- Édition du XVe siècle").  Click here to see the title page of that(?) printed edition.

 Enseignements qui enseingnent a apareillier toutes manieres de viandes (French, 1304-14)  Contains 46 recipes.  From the edition by  Grégoire Lozinski in La bataille de caresme et de  charnage (1933), pp. 181-187.  Click here for a photograph of the original manuscript (Paris, BNF, Manuscrit Latin 7131, fol. 99v).  Click here for  another copy of the same photograph . Click here for a modern English translation by Daniel Myers.  Click here for a searchable index of Myers' translation.  Click here for the original text with facing modern French translation.

 Tractatus de modo preparandi et condiendi omnia cibaria (Latin, beginning of 14th cent.)  Contains about 80 recipes.  From the edition of Marianne Mulon, "Deux traités inédits d'art culinaire médiéval," in Bulletin philologique et historique (jusqu'à 1610) du Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques. Année 1968: Actes du 93e Congrès national des Sociétés savantes tenu à Tours. Volume 1: Les problèmes de l'alimentation (Paris, 1971, pp. 369-435; Tractatus, pp. 380-395.)  Click here for a  photograph of the manuscript (Paris, BnF, Département des manuscrits, Latin 9328, fols. 129r-133v). 

 Liber de coquina, ubi diuersitates ciborum docentur (Latin, beginning of 14th cent.)  Contains 172 recipes.  From the edition of Marianne Mulon, "Deux traités inédits d'art culinaire médiéval," in Bulletin philologique et historique (jusqu'à 1610) du Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques. Année 1968: Actes du 93e Congrès national des Sociétés savantes tenu à Tours. Volume 1: Les problèmes de l'alimentation (Paris, 1971, pp. 369-435; Liber de coquina, pp. 396-420.) 

 "Anonimo Veneziano," Libro di cucina/ Libro per cuoco (Italian, c. 1300-1350)   An incomplete collection of 135 recipes by an anonymous Venetian of the fourteenth century, edited from a late fifteenth-century manuscript by Ludovico Frati in Libro di cucina del secolo XIV (1899).  22 of the recipes can also be found in the "Anonimo Toscano" collection (see below).  Click here for a another copy of the original text, and for a  modern English translation by Louise Smithson.  Click here for a searchable index to this collection.

 Magninus Mediolanensis, Regimen sanitatis (Latin, c. early 1330s)  Treatise on health and diet, by Maino de' Maineri of Milan, lecturer at the medical school at Paris.  Scanned pages of the Strassburg edition of 1503.

Magninus Mediolanensis, Opusculum de saporibus (Latin, c. early 1330s)  A collection of sauce recipes by Maino de' Maineri of Milan, lecturer at the medical school at Paris, which forms part of the author's dietetic treatise, Regimen sanitatis. Edited by Lynn Thorndike (1934) from Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale, MS VIII. D. 35, ff. 52rb-53va.

Das buch von guter spise (Daz buoch von guoter spise) (German, 1345-54)  Collection of 96 recipes ("The Book of Good Food"), from a household manual compiled by Michael de Leone, proto-notary of the archbishop of Wurzburg.  There are two extant MSS: (A) the original Würzburg MS (1345 x 1354), now München Universitãtsbibliothek, *2º Cod. MS 731 (Cim. 4), ff. 156ra-165vb, and (B) the later Dessau MS (c. 1400 x 1450), Anhaltische Landesbücherei, MS Georg. 278.2o, ff. 123v-132v.   This is the text from the  Würzburg-Münchener MS , edited by Hans Hajek (1958).  Click here for an earlier (1844) edition of the text with an uneven English translation by Alia Atlas.  Click here for a searchable index of Atlas's translation.  Click here for a photograph of the Würzburg-Münchener manuscript with a modern German translation of the recipe for "Rheingauer Hühner."  The two manuscripts are compared in Melitta Weiss Adamson's Daz buoch von guoter spise (The Book of Good Food). A Study, Edition, and English Translation of the Oldest German Cookbook, Medium Aevum Quotidianum, Sonderband IX (Krems, 2000). 

The Forme of Cury (English, c. 1390s) and Ancient Cookery (English, c. 1381)   A facsimile of Samuel Pegge's edition of these recipe collections (1780), taken, respectively, from British Library, Additional MS 5016 (roll), and Bodleian Library, MS Douce 257, ff. 86r-96v (under the title "Diuersa servicia").  Click here for a typescript version of Pegge's edition, by Project Gutenberg (flawed by scanning errors, e.g., "f" for tall "s" and "a" for "æ").  Click here for scanned photos of a manuscript Fourme of cury (John Rylands University Library, English MS 7, 90 folios, 194 recipes, the last a 19th-cent. copy from Pegge's edition).  Click here for a transcription of the Rylands manuscript, by Daniel Myers.  Click here for a searchable index of The Forme of Cury , and for an index to the original recipes with modern adaptations
Click here to see a 29-minute episode of "The Medieval Mind" (BBC, 2008) in which Clarissa Dickson Wright examines the manuscript of the Forme of Cury and cooks three recipes from it: roast goose with Sauce Madame, fish with Egredouce sauce, and poached pears.

  A Collection of Ordinances and Regulations for the Government of the Royal Household . . . Also, Receipts in Ancient Cookery (London: Society of Antiquaries, 1790)  Valuable collection of royal household regulations from the reign of Edward III to that of William and Mary, together with an edition of British Library, MS Arundel 334.

Antiquitates culinariae, or Curious Tracts Relating to the Culinary Affairs of the Old English, ed. Richard Warner (Latin and English, 1791)  In an extensive introduction, Warner surveys early cuisines, and prints various texts, including the meat and fish menus for Henry IV's wedding to Joan of Navarre in 1403 (pp. xxxiv-xxxv ), the coronation menu of Katherine de Valois in 1421 (pp. xxxv-xxxvii), the household regulations (including menus) of Cecily Neville, mother of Edward IV (pp. xlvii-xlix), and the breakfast menus from the household ordinances of Henry Percy, fifth earl of Northumberland, 1512 (pp. xlix-li).  Warner then prints texts taken directly from recent printed editions: Pegge's edition of 1780 (see above) of The Forme of Cury (British Library, Add. MS 5016), and Ancient Cookery (Bodleian Library, MS Douce 257, ff. 86r-96v); the Society of Antiquaries' edition in Household Ordinances (1790) of British Library, MS Arundel 334; a small collection of recipes for the preservation of fruits, from the Antiquarian Repertory, IV (1781), p. 95; and two menus from Thomas Hearne's edition of (1770) Leland's Collectanea, vol. VI: the enthronement of George Neville as archbishop of York in 1465, and the enthronement of William Warham as archbishop of Canterbury in 1504.

Menus for feasts, 1397 and 1443 (English)  Banquet given by John of Gaunt for Richard II at Durham Place, London (the text dates this to 1387, but the correct date is 1397); and installation banquet of John Stafford, archbishop of Canterbury. From the edition of Thomas Austin (1888).

Le ménagier de Paris (French, c. 1393)  From the edition of Jérôme Pichon (1846), pp. 80-210 (chapter on food and cookery).  (Click here for a mirror of the same site .)   Click here for two photographs of a 15th-cent. manuscript (BN, 12477, fol. 1r) (mislabeled: the top and bottom photos are from the Ménagier MS; the middle photo is from a manuscript of Boccaccio's Decameron). Click here for an English translation by Janet Hinson.  Click here for a  searchable index of the English translation.  (For an authoritative English translation of the entire work, see The Good Wife's Guide (Le Menagier de Paris): A Medieval Household Book, trans. Gina L. Greco and Christine M. Rose (Cornell University Press, 2009).

Two royal banquet menus  (English,  c. 1390s)   Menus for a feast given  for Richard II by "Lord Spenser" (Thomas le Despenser, created earl of Gloucester 29 Sept. 1397), and  for a feast at the king's court.   From the edition of Constance B. Hieatt and Sharon Butler  (1985), with added translation into modern English.

Anonimo Toscano, Libro della cocina (Italian, end 1300s - beginning 1400s)  Incomplete collection of 183 recipes written by an anonymous Tuscan, occupying the last 19 pages of a miscellany now in the Biblioteca Universitaria di Bologna.  22 of the recipes can also be found in the earlier "Anonimo Veneziano" collection (see above).  From Emilio Faccioli, Arte della cucina (1966), vol. I, pp. 21-57; this edition is based on that by Francesco Zambrini in Il libro della cucina del secolo XIV (Bologna, 1863).  Click here for another copy of the original text, and for some extracts in modern Italian translation , from L'arte della cucina in Italia, ed. Emilio Faccioli (1987).  Click here for a modern English translation of the medieval text.

  "Anonymous Southerner," Book A: "Limonia" (Italian, late 14th-early 15th cent.)   See also recipes for  kid pie and  hare stew .  Click here for a brief  description of this recipe collection .

 Illustrations from the Tacuinum sanitatis (Latin, late 14th-early 15th cent.)  These images illustrate passages in the text concerning the humoral properties and effects on health of various foods. 

Chiquart Amiczo,  Du fait de cuisine (French, 1420)  Master Chiquart was chief cook to the duke of Savoy. English translation by Elizabeth Cook.  Click here for the table of contentsClick here for a searchable index of this collection.  Click here for an extract describing  the supplies needed for a grand feast . Click here for a photograph of  the manuscript (f. 70r) , with a transcription and a modern French translation.  Click here for selections from the original text with facing modern French translation.

 Vivendier (French, c. 1425 or mid 15th cent.)  (There is also an archived copy at With facing translation in modern French.  From the edition by Bruno Laurioux in Le Règne de Taillevent. Livres et pratiques culinaires à la fin du Moyen Âge. Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1997.  The sole manuscript, containing 66 recipes, is Kassel, Gesamthochschulbibliothek, 4° MS med. 1, folios 154r-164v.  Terence Scully, in his edition of this manuscript (The Vivendier, Prospect Books, 1997), writes that it probably originated in northern -- most likely, northeastern -- France around the middle of the fifteenth century.

 Johannes de Bockenheim, Registrum coquine (Latin, 1431-1435) Photograph of a folio from one of the two extant manuscripts, showing recipes 28 (Easter lamb) and 29 (tortas pro nobilibus).  Paris, BNF, Département des manuscrits, Latin 7054.  Bockenheim was cook to Pope Martin V.  Click here for a discussion (in French) of Bockenheim and his collection of 74 recipes, including a transcription of Recipe 5 (boiled beef, "good for Germans").  See also Bockenheim's recipe for hemp-seed soup , and a  brief biography  of him.

 Two Fifteenth-Century Cookbooks (English, c. 1430 and 1450)  British Library, MSS. Harley 279 (c. 1430) and Harley 4016 (c. 1450), with extracts from Bodleian Library, MSS Ashmole 1439, Laud 553, and Douce 55. Edited by Thomas Austin (1888, rpt 1964).  Click here for a searchable index   of the recipes.  Click here for a searchable index to this collection.  Click here for an translation (with modernized recipes) of a  dinner menu for the feast of the Holy Trinity from Harley 279.

Rheinfränkisches Kochbuch (German, c. 1445)  Sample folio, with transcription and modern German translation, of Berlin, Staatsbibliothek Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ms. germ. fol. 244 (folio 285r).  From the edition by Thomas Gloning (1998).  Click here for  two other photographs  of the MS ( folios 290v and 293r), showing recipes for "Rheingauer Hühner" with modern German translations (scroll down page to recipes beginning "Willst du Pasteten machen" and "Nimm Wein und Honig").

Liber cure cocorum (English, c. temp. Henry VI)   Cookbook in doggerel verse, from British Library, MS. Sloane 1986, ff. 27r-56v, edited by Richard Morris (1862).   Click here for another copy, and for a  parallel transcription and modern translation , with notes, by Cindy Renfrow.    Click here for a  searchable index of the recipes.

 Martino Rossi (or da Como; "Maestro Martino"), Libro de arte coquinaria (Italian, c. late 1450s)  Edited by Emilio Faccioli (1966).  Click here for another copy of the original text.  See also English translations of Master Martino's recipes  for cheese pie with herbsrice with almond milksturgeon , and  eggnog .  Click here for a brief  biography of Master Martino .

Ein alemannisches Büchlein von guter Speise (German, 15th cent.)  From the edition by Anton Birlinger (1865).  Click here for two photographs of the manuscript (Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek, Cgm 284, folios 103v-104r), containing a recipe for "Rheingauer Hühner", with a modern German translation.  (Scroll down to recipe beginning "Willst du eine Pastete machen," followed by snippet beginning "Und backe es in einem Ofen.")

Ein mittelniederdeutsches Kochbuch (German, 15th cent.)  Edited by Hans Wiswe (1956). Recipes 56-71 duplicate those of the 13th-century "Harpestreng" cookbook (see above).

 Libre de totes maneres de confits (Catalan, 15th cent.)  Recipes for preserves, edited by Luis Faraudo de Saint-Germain (1946).

Aus der Küche der deutschen Ordensritter (German, c. 1450-1500)  The earliest known cookbook from East Prussia (Königsberg), edited by H. Gollub in Prussia, 31 (1935), 118-24, from a manuscript in Berlin (Geh. Staatsarchiv Preuß. Kulturbesitz, XX. HA OBA 18384).  See also R. G. Päsler, "Deutschsprachige Sachliteratur im Preußenland bis 1500. Untersuchungen zu ihrer Überlieferung." (Diss. phil., Oldenburg, 1999).

 Le Recueil de Riom (French, c. 1466?)  Collection of 48 recipes from a manuscript originally written in Riom (now Paris, Bibl. nat. lat. 6707, fols. 184-188).  Original text, from the edition by Carole Lambert, with a somewhat uneven English translation by Jennifer Soucy.  Click here for a searchable index to this collection.

 Gentyll manly Cokere (English, later 15th cent.)  Facsimiles of culinary recipes from Magdalene College, Cambridge, MS Pepys 1047, originally published in a flawed edition by Gerald Hodgett as Stere Htt Welle (1972).  New transcriptions are provided here by James L. Matterer, who also intends to supply modern English translations and adaptations for the modern cook.  In progress.

  Das Kochbuch des Meisters Eberhard von Landshut (German, c. 1475-1500)  Edited by A. Feyl (1963).  Collection of 24 recipes from a manuscript in the Universitatsbibliothek, Augsburg, headed: "Hienach volgt vonn dem kochenn und hat gemacht meyster Eberhart, ein koch herczog Heinrichs zu Landshut."  Click here for a modern English translation by Volker Bach (2005).  Click here for a searchable index to this collection.

Öffentliche Bibliothek der Universität (ÖUB), Cod. D II 30, fols. 300r-310v (German, c. 1475-1500, or beg. 16th cent.)  Thomas Gloning's transciption.  Click here for a description of the manuscript.  See also Alessandra Sorbello Staub, Die Basler Rezeptsammlung. Studien zu spätmittelalterlichen deutschen Kochbüchern. Erstausgabe mit Kommentar und Fachglossar der Handschriften Basel, ÖUB D II 30, Bl. 300ra-310va und Heidelberg, UB cpg. 551, Bl. 186r-196v und 197r-204r. Würzburg, 2002. [Diss. 1998].  Click here for a discussion in English of the recipe for a giant egg on fol. 307v.

  A Noble boke off cookry ffor a prynce houssolde or eny other estately houssolde (English, late 15th cent.) The text of Holkham Hall, MS 674, in an  unfortunately flawed edition by Mrs. Alexander [Robina] Napier (London, 1882). 
Click here for a searchable index to this collection.

  Middle English culinary recipes in British Library, MS Harley 5401 (English, late 15th cent.)   Collection of 96 culinary recipes, attributed to "dominus Thomas Awkbarow," and deriving partly from the fourteenth-century collections known as Diversa servicia and The Forme of Cury.  Original text, transcribed by Constance Hieatt, with modern English translation by Sam Wallace.  Click here for a  concordance to Constance Hieatt's edition  in Medium Ævum 65 (1996), 54-71.   Click here for a searchable index to this collection.  See also  Five recipes from British Library, Harleian MS. 5401  From F. J. Furnivall's collection, The babees book [etc.] (Early English Text Society, 1868).  For the entire collection, see above under household and conduct texts.

 Graz, University Library (UBG), MS 1609 (German, late 15th cent.)   Two sample fast-day recipes, one for making imitation eggs out of pike and ginger, and the other for a walnut sauce for fish, with modern adaptations.  In German (PDF file).

Alte Kockrezepte aus dem bayrischen Inntal (German, 15th-16th cent.)  Edited by Berthilde Danner (1970).  Click here for an English translation by Volker Bach.

  Anonymous southern Dutch cookbook (Dutch, c. 1475 - early 16th cent.)  MS 15 in the Royal Academy (KANTL), Ghent, consisting of three collections of culinary recipes and one collection of medicinal recipes.  The culinary recipes were published by W.L. Braekman in 1986 in: "Een belangrijke middelnederlandse bron voor Vorselmans’ Nyeuwen Coock Boeck (1560)," Volkskunde 87 (1986) pp. 1-24 (part I), and Een nieuw zuidnederlands kookboek uit de vijftiende eeuw, Scripta 17, Brussel, 1986 (parts II and III). Christianne Muusers is producing a trilingual edition of the culinary recipes (in progress), in the original Middle Dutch, in modern Dutch, and in modern English.  Her site includes a photograph of Recipe 13 from Part I, p. 34, and a photograph of Recipe 24 from Part II, p. 47 of KANTL, Ghent, MS 15.  Part I shares a common source with Gerard (Geraert) Vorselman's Nyeuwen Coock Boeck (Antwerp, 1560).  The latter was edited by Elly Cockx-Indestege as Eenen nyeuwen coock boeck, kookboek samengesteld door Geraert Vorselman en gedrukt te Antwerpen in 1560 (Wiesbaden, 1971). 

Livro de Cozinha da Infanta D. Maria (Portuguese, c. 1480 - c. 1510)   Extracts from the edition by Giacinto Manuppela (Lisbon, 1986) of  MS I. E 33 in the Biblioteca Nazionale, Naples.  The Infanta Maria of Portugal (1538-77) married Alessandro Farnese in 1565, and this manuscript, which contains 73 folios and includes some Farnese texts, probably belonged to her.  The collection of 67 culinary recipes is untitled and undated, and written in a variety of hands of c. 1480 - c.1510.  Click here for a description of the manuscript in French and another description in Portuguese (with bibliographic references), and for a photo of Recipe I and a photo of Recipe LXVI.   The collection called Um tratado da cozinha portuguesa do século XV appears to be a modern Portuguese adaptation of this recipe collection, with measures given in liters, grams, and kilos, by Antônio Gomes Filho (Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Nacional do Livro: 1963, rpt 1994).  Click here (select HTML or PDF) for a modern English translation by "Faerisa Gwynarden" [Fernanda Gomes] of the latter. Click here for a searchable index to this translation. 

 Hermolaus Barbarus (Ermolao Barbaro), description of an Italian wedding banquet (Latin, 1488)  This description was translated into French by Michel Nostradamus and published in 1555.

 Das Weinbuch im Codex Donaueschingen 787 (German, c. 1500)   Collection of recipes for making, keeping, and emending wine and vinegar, from three folios (118v, 209r-211v) of a manuscript of Gottfried von Franken.  The collection begins: "Hie vahet an alle artzenie von dem wine, wie man yme helffen sol, vnd wie man alle gebresten an dem wine wider bringen sol."

 Robert de Nola, Libre de doctrina per a ben servir, de tallar y del art de coch (Catalan,  late 15th - early 16th cent.)  Recipe collection and description of servants' duties by Master Robert, cook to Ferrando (Ferrante or Ferdinand), King of Naples. The earliest printed culinary text in Catalan (Barcelona, 1520).   Click here for photographs of the original edition.  For an English translation by Robin Carroll-Mann of a later Spanish edition of de Nola's book (Logrono, 1529), click here for Part One; click here for  Part Two .  Click here for a searchable index of this collection.

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Early Modern Culinary Texts (1500-1700)

 Wel ende edelike spijse (Dutch, c. 1500)    MS UB Ghent 1035, containing 62 culinary recipes written in one hand, edited in 1872 by C. A. Serrure under the title Keukenboek, uitgegeven naar een handschrift der vijftiende eeuw.  Click here for a modern English translation by Christianne Muusers, who also provides the original text and a translation into modern Dutch.  The text begins: "Desen bouc leert wel ende edelike spijse te bereedene tetene also als hier naer volcht" ("This book teaches [one] to prepare good and noble food to be eaten, as follows"). Click here for a searchable index to this translation.  Click here for a photograph of recipe 12 on folio 3r of the manuscript.

 Kuchenmeisterey (German, 16th cent.)  Scanned images of a manuscript copy (Universitätsbibliothek Innsbruck, UB-HB-S Cod. 671, 104 folios) of a cookery text first printed in the late 15th century.

 Le Platine en francoys (French, 1505)  Scanned photographs of the early French version of the Latin De honesta voluptate, compiled by Bartolomeo Sacchi ("Battista Platina") about 1470, and first printed at Rome in 1473.  Sacchi took most of his recipes from the Libro de arte coquinaria (c. late 1450s), by the celebrated chef Martino Rossi ("Maestro Martino;" see above).

The Boke of Kervynge (English, 1508)  Treatise, printed by Wynkyn de Worde, on carving and serving food, with recipes for hippocras and sauces, seasonçal menus, and the duties of various servants.

 Een notabel boecxken van cokeryen (Dutch, c. 1514)   The first printed cookbook in Dutch, published in Brussels by Thomas vander Noot (c. 1475-1525), and reprinted in a facsimile edition in 1925.  A partial English translation is provided.   Click here for another copy, in Dutch only, made available by  Marleen van der Molen-Willebrands from the edition that she and Ria Jansen-Sieben published in 1994.

 Von Speisen, natuerlichen und kreuter Wein, aller verstand (German, 1531)  English translation by Alia Atlas, from the edition printed in the Reihe Klassische Kochkunst, vol. 7 (1984).

  A Propre new booke of Cokery, 1545 (English, 1545). The complete title is: A PROPRE new booke of Cokery / declaryng what maner of meates bee best in ceason for all tymes of þe yere and how thei ought to bee dressed and serued at the table bothe for flessh daies and fisshe daies with a newe addicion / veri necessarye for all them that delighteth in cokery (London:Richard Lant and Richarde Bankes, 1545). There is a copy of this edition in the Hunterian Library at the University of Glasgow.  See below for the edition of 1557-8.
 Das Kochbuch der Philippine Welser (German, 1545)   The earliest cookbook known to have been written by a woman?  Photograph of one of the 245 recipes copied by the 18-year-old daughter of a patrician Augsburg family, perhaps as an educational exercise or as a gift for her mother.  Philippine Welser (1527-80) subsequently married the Archduke Ferdinand II of Bavaria.  (Scroll down to photograph of MS, which is just above a contemporary portrait of Philippine Welser.)  From the edition by Gerold Hayer (1983).

Das Kochbuch von Sabina Welserin (German, 1553)  English translation by Valoise Armstrong (1998). Click here for the original German text from the edition of Hugo Stopp (1980). Click here for a searchable index of this collection.

 Augspurger Kochbuoch (German, c. 1554)  Edition published in Augsburg in 1886 of a recipe collection described as belonging to "Junckfraw Maria Stenglerin" in 1554.

 Hans Dernschwam, Description of  food and foodways in Turkey (German, 1553-5)  From the diary kept by Dernschwam (1494-1568), a Bohemian scholar and agent of the Fuggers in Transylvania, of a trip to Constantinople and Asia Minor. Edited by Franz Babinger in Studien zur Fugger-Geschichte, 7 (München/Leipzig, 1923), 123-131.

 Jacobus Bifrons [Jachiam Bifrun], Epistola de caseis et operibus lactariis et modo quo in Rhæticis regionibus et alpibus parantur (Latin, 1556) Letter to Conrad Gesner about cheesemaking and dairy products in Switzerland.  From Jodocus Willich, Ars magirica hoc est, coquinaria, de cibariis, ferculis opsonijs, alimentis & potibus diuersis parandis, eorumque facultatibus (Zürich 1563), 220-227.

 Michel Nostradamus, "La façon & maniere de faire toutes confitures" (French, 1555)  Scanned photographs of the second part of a volume of recipes attributed to the celebrated physician and astrologer.  The volume itself is titled Excellent & moult utile Opuscule à touts necessaire, qui desirent auoir cognoissance  de plusieurs exquises Receptes, diuisé en deux parties(The first part of the volume, not scanned here, contains cosmetic recipes.)

 A Proper newe Booke of Cokerye (English, c. 1557-8)  Early English printed cookbook that discusses seasonal foods and provides suggested menus and recipes.   Edited by Catherine Frances Frere (1913), from a unique copy in the Parker Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, printed in London by John Kynge and Thomas Marche (undated, but probably c. 1557-8).  See above for an earlier edition of 1545. Click here for a searchable index to this collection. 

Koch vnd Kellermeisterey (German, 1566)  Edited from the early printed text by Christian Heuer and Thomas Gloning.

 Bartolomeo Scappi, Opera (Italian, 1570)  Scappi was privy cook to Pope Pius V.  This is a scanned version of Scappi's cookbook, from the Getty Research Institute.  Click here for a banquet menu from Scappi's work, taken from L’arte della cucina in Italia, ed. Emilio Faccioli (1987).  Click here for another scanned version of the edition of 1570, and for editions of 1605, 1610, and 1622.  

 William Harrison, Description of England (English, 1577): "Of the food and diet of the English"   Harrison describes the food, drink, and meals of his day.

 Marx Rumpolt, Ein New Kochbuch (German, 1581)   Transcription and English translation by M. Grasse.  Click here for selections from the original German text.

 Manual de mujeres en el cual se contienen muchas y diversas recetas muy buenas (Spanish, 16th cent.)  Contains both culinary and household recipes.  Click here for an  English translation (in progress).

  A.W., A Book of Cookrye (English, 1591)  Originally published in 1584, "now newlye enlarged with the serving in of the Table." Transcribed by Mark and Jane Waks from STC 24897 -- Early English Text microfilms, reel 1613:9.

 Carolus Battus (or Carel Baten), Cocboeck (Dutch, 1593)  The first edition, by a physician of Dordrecht, and transcribed here by Marleen van der Molen-Willebrands.   The full title reads:  Eenen seer schoonen, ende excellenten Cocboeck, inhoudende alderleye wel gheëxperimenteerde cokagien van ghebraedt, ghesoden, pasteyen, taerten, toerten, vlaeyen, saussen, sopen ende diergelijcke. Oock diversche confeytueren ende drancken, etc. An important source for De verstandige kock (1669; see below for link).

The good Huswifes Handmaide for the Kitchin (English, 1594)  Digital version by Thomas Gloning of this anonymous text.  In progress.  See also the digital text and notes by Sam Wallace.

 Thomas Dawson, The Good Huswifes Jewell (English, 1596)  Extracts from the third edition of Dawson's book, transcribed by Kirrily Robert.  The full title reads:  The Good Huswifes Jewell.  Wherein is to be found most excellent and rare Devises for conceites in Cookery, found out by the practise of Thomas Dawson.  Whereunto is adjoyned sundry approved receits for many soveraine oyles, and the way to distill many precious waters, with divers approved medicines for many diseases. Also certain approved points of husbandry, very necessary for all Husbandmen to know.  Newly set foorth with additions. 1596. Imprinted at London for Edward White dwelling at the little North doore of Paules at the signe of the Gun.  Click here for a searchable index of this collection.

Anna Wecker, Ein Köstlich new Kochbuch, Teil 4: Von allerhand Fisch/ Su:eltzen vnd So:essen (German, 1598)  Anna Wecker was the widow of Johann Jacob Wecker (1528-86), a well-known physician, author, and translator of Basel.  Her cookbook emphasizes food for the sick and invalids; this extract contains recipes for seafood.  Click here for digitized photos of the original volume; click here for the illustrated title page.

 Fons Grewe (Italian, Latin, French, English, Spanish, and Dutch, 16th-18th cent.)   Rudolf Grewe's collection of 38 early modern printed cookbooks and related texts, scanned by the Biblioteca de la Universitat de Barcelona.  (The instructions are in Catalan.  To page through a volume, enter the desired page number and click on anar_a.  To go forward one page, click on endavant.  To go back one page, click on enrera.  To go to the beginning of the volume, click on inici.)

 Romanian manuscript cookbook (Romanian, 17th cent.)  This is a modern English translation made in 2003 by Patrick Levesque of a manuscript cookbook called “The Book where I write dishes of fish, crayfish, oysters, snails, vegetables, salads and other dishes for fast and non-fast days. In their serving order.”  It includes recipes for fish, vegetables, meat, eggs, fruits, sauces, salads, wines, vodka, cordials, preserves, rose water, ink, metal cleaners and polishes, and gunpowder.  This recipe collection was published by the Romanian Cultural Foundation Editions as the second half of a book titled O lume intr-o carte de bucate: Manuscris din epoca brancoveneasca (ISBN 9735770903).

 Lancelot de Casteau, Ouverture de Cuisine (French, 1604)  Casteau, who served as master cook to three successive prince-bishops of Liège, included recipes attributed to the style of Hungary, Germany, Portugal, Spain, Catalonia, Lombardy, Italy, Rome, Bologna, Cremona, England, and Ireland.  From the facsimile edition of Herman Liebaers, Léo Moulin, and Jacques Kother (1983).  Click here for a modern English translation by Daniel Myers. Click here for a searchable index to this collection.

 Relatione d'alcune cose della Nuova Spagna (1529?/ Italian, 1606)  Description of the food and drink of Mexico,  by an anonymous gentleman who had served with Cortez.   From G.B. Ramusio, Delle Navigationi et Viaggi, volume terzo (Venetia, 1606).

Domingo Hernandez de Maceras, Libro de Cozina (Spanish, 1607)  The author describes himself as cook (cozinero) in the Collegio Mayor de Orviedo in the city of Salamanca, where this volume was published.  Front matter plus 21 pages of text are available in scanned images from a copy of this early printed book at the University of Chicago's Regenstein Library.

  Hugh Plat, Delightes for Ladies (English, 1609)  Miscellaneous excerpts from Plat's collection of culinary and household recipes, especially for preserves, pastry, sweetmeats, and toiletries, transcribed by Kirrily Robert.  Click here for a searchable index of this collection.

 John Murrell, A New Booke of Cookerie; London Cookerie (English, 1615)  The full title reads:  A Nevv Booke  of Cookerie. VVherein is set forth the newest and most commendable Fashion for Dressing or Sowcing, eyther  Flesh, Fish, or Fowle. Together with making of all sorts of Iellyes, and other made-Dishes for seruice; both to  beautifie and adorne eyther Nobleman or Gentlemans Table. Hereunto also is added the most exquisite London  Cookerie. All set forth according to the now, new, English and French fashion. Set forth by the obseruation of  a Traueller.  Click here for a searchable index to this collection.

 Koge-Bog: Indeholdendis et hundrede fornødene stycker [etc.] (Danish, 1616)  The earliest printed Scandinavian cookbook, containing 100 recipes.  The full title reads: Koge Bog: Indeholdendis et hundrede fornødene stycker Som ere om Brygning Bagning Kogen Brændevijn oc Miød at berede saare nytteligt vdi Husz holdning &c. Click here for the same text with an accompanying  modern English translation by Maggie Forest.

 John Taylor, anecdote on recipe-collecting, from Taylor's Feast (English, 1638)  Humorous account of a lawyer who so enjoyed a dish (a "fool") at supper that he requested the recipe, "that his Wife might put it in her booke of Cookery."

 Ambigu (table spread with a cold buffet, English, 1698?)  Photograph of a reconstruction of an Ambigu, a cold buffet containing a mixture of savory and sweet dishes and fruits,  popular in 17th-century France and England.   

 Sir Kenelm Digby, The Closet of the Eminently Learned Sir Kenelme Digbie Kt Opened (English, 1669)  The complete title reads: The Closet of the Eminently Learned Sir Kenelme Digbie Kt Opened: Whereby is Discovered Several ways for making of Metheglin, Sider, Cherry-Wine, &c. together with Excellent Directions for Cookery: As also for Preserving,Conserving, Candying, &c.  Excerpts from Digby's collection of recipes for various drinks.

  De verstandige kock of sorghvuldige huyshoudster (Dutch, 1669)  The only cookbook published in Dutch in the Netherlands (Amsterdam: Marcus Doornick) during the 17th century, transcribed here by Marleen van der Molen-Willebrands.

  Gervase Markham, The English Huswife (English, 1615; 9th edition, 1683)  Excerpts from the ninth edition of Markham's book (originally published in 1615), transcribed by Kirrily Roberts.  This transcription was formerly available at, but now is available at the Foods of England website (above), and also via the Internet Archive.

 Hannah Woolley, The Gentlewoman's Companion: or, A Guide to the Female Sex (English, 1675)   Begins with chapters on the education and deportment of women, and follows with culinary recipes, medicinal recipes, advice to servants, model letters, and witty dialogues.

 Ein Koch- Und Artzney-Buch (German, 1686)  Austria's earliest printed cookbook; 118 pages.

 Dorothy Petre, manuscript cookbook (English, 1705)  Photographs of the MS and its recipe pages, from the University of Pennsylvania Library.

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Martha Carlin