LECTURE OUTLINE FOR HISTORY 204

Prof. Martha Carlin

Week 13: Tuesday

 

THE FOURTEENTH AND EARLY FIFTEENTH CENTURIES: PAPAL POLITICS

Music:

    "Due ancoliti": music from 14th-century Italy (4:57 min.):
        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YQtpphLG3KA

    Josquin des Pres (fl. 1459-d. 1521), "Mirabilia testimonia" (9:47 min.):
        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pBwfZQ_bfXw


1300    Medieval population at its peak

Philip IV of France vs. Pope Boniface VIII:
              
    1294-1303       Pope Boniface VIII, a canon lawyer, challenges Philip IV "the Fair" of France and
                            Edward I "Longshanks" of England over clerical taxation and papal supremacy:
            1296        Papal bull Clericis laicos forbids kings to tax clergy
            1300        Boniface declares the first Papal Jubilee Year in Rome; offers penitent pilgrims visiting Rome
                            a remission of their sins through indulgences that remitted time in Purgatory (by pope's drawing
                            on the Treasure House of Merit, first proposed c. 1230 by the Dominican Hugh of St-Cher)
            1302        Papal bull Unam sanctam claims that papal supremacy is necessary for every
                                human's salvation
            1303        Philip IV's Estates-General convicts Boniface VIII of numerous crimes, and a French
                                force briefly captures the pope at Anagni; he is rescued but dies soon after
            1305        French-affiliate pope elected, and papacy moves headquarters from Rome to Avignon

14th century crises include:

    Great Famine (1315-22)

    Great Plague or "Black Death" (1347-49).
 
    Conflict over ecclesiastical wealth and papal power epitomized by:

        1323    Spiritual Franciscans declared heretics
        1324    Marsiglio of Padua's Defensor Pacis 

    Outbreak of 100 Years' War between France and England (1337-1453) (see map and 15th-cent. illustration of the Battle of Crécy, 1346)

    "Babylonian Captivity" of papacy in Avignon, 1309-76 (click for murals by Matteo Giovanetti, 1340s, in the chapel of St-Jean and papal suite)
        ended by  Gregory XI's return to Rome at the urging of
        the lay ascetic and mystic St. Catherine of Siena (1347-80). 
            (Click here for a photo of St. Catherine's  mummified head in the church of St. Dominic in Siena.)
   
    Beginning of Papal Schism (1378-1415) with uncanonical election of Urban VI
   
    Peasant revolts and urban riots
   
    Rise of Lollardy (Council of Constance, 1414-18, condemned and burned John Wycliffe's follower, Jan Hus)

15th-century crises include:
   
    Conciliar movement
(launched by Council of Pisa, 1409, called to heal Papal Schism; ended with
        Council of Basel, 1431-49, after which popes dispensed with councils)
 

Online readings:

                           Boniface VIII: Clericis laicos, 1296
                             http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/b8-clericos.asp

                            Boniface VIII: Unam sanctam, 1302
                             http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/b8-unam.asp

                            Petrarch’s invectives against Avignon
                             http://pantherfile.uwm.edu/carlin/www/Petrarch.htm

                           Marsiglio of Padua, Defensor pacis (1324): Conclusions
                             http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/marsiglio1.asp



Thursday:

Music:

    Johannes Ciconia, born in Liège c. 1370 , active at the papal court and elsewhere in N. Italy; died in Padua in 1412:
        "Gloria" (3:47 min.):
            http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ids_4DNliJw

         "Doctorum principem" (2:54 min.):
            http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xXgMoJYQt1A&feature=relmfu

        "O Petre antistes inclite" (2:48 min.):
            http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=olO6xgGTXs0&feature=relmfu

  Online readings:

  St. Catherine of Siena beseeches Gregory IX to return to Rome

  The origins of the Great Schism: Manifesto of the revolting cardinals, 1378  (click here for a map showing the Schism's religious divisions)

  Jean Petit, "The Complaint of Lady Church," 1393: Satire on the multiple popes of  the Great Schism

  Powers of the Council of Pisa, 1409 (click here for a map)

  Jan Hus: Reply to the synod of Prague, 1413; and last words at the stake at the Council of Constance
    (convened by Sigismund, King of Germany and of the Romans, who had given Hus a safe-conduct), 1415

  Pius II: Decree Execrabilis, 1459