Music 680: Electronics in Performance
Fall 2004
Lecture 1: September 13, 2004

disclaimer about the shameless stereotyping of "europe" and "america"
conceptual / historical overview of the genre
tape and fixed-medium works
        in america: Varese & Cage
                electronics as an expanded orchestrational resource
                        "I believe that the use of noise to make music will continue and increase until we reach 			a music produced through the aid of electrical instruments which will make available 
			for musical purposes any and all sounds that can be heard. Photoelectric, film, and
			mechanical mediums for the synthetic production of music will be explored. 
			Whereas, in the past, the point of disagreement has been between dissonance and 
			consonance, it will be, in the immediate future, between noise and so-called musical 
			sounds." 
                                from "Credo: The Future of Music," John Cage, 1937 (reprinted in Silence)
                        Cage / Imaginary Landscape no. 1 (1939) for piano & percussion with turntables
                        Varese / Deserts (1954) orchestra with tape
        in europe: Stockhausen & Nono
                as an expanded mirror-image of the instrumental resources
                drive towards systemization: formulas to relate rhythm, pitch, & timbre
                as the "other," the artificial
                        Stockhausen / Kontakte (1958-60) for piano & percussion with tape
                        Berio / Laborintus II (1965) for singers, chorus, ensemble, reciter and tape
                        Reynolds / Ariadne's Thread (1994) for string quartet and tape
                as a representation of the "real," the political, or the dramatic
                relationship to certain aspects of the GRM / acousmatic tradition in France (but not others)
                        Nono / La fabbrica illuminata (1964) for soprano with tape
                        Xenakis / Kraanerg for ensemble with tape
                        Nono / ...sofferte onde serene... (1975) for piano with tape
live-electronic works
        in europe: Stockhausen
                again as pioneer...
                electronics as a way to extend conventional instrumental technique
                thinking of terms of pitches and timbres
                        Stockhausen / Mikrophonie I (1964) for tam-tam and six performers 
                        Stockhausen / Mantra (1970) for piano duo
                        Ferneyhough / Time and Motion Study II (1976) for cello and electronics
        in america: Cage & Tudor
                electronics as a way beyond instrumental, compositional, and aesthetic clichŽs
                thinking in terms of noise
                        Cage / Electronic Music for Piano (1964) for piano with electronics
                        Tudor / Pulsers (1976) variable; in recording, violin with electronics
                        Hunt / Cantegral Segment 18.17 (1977) for voice with electronics
        in europe: IRCAM & the Strobel-Stiftung (Freiburg)
                computers as a way beyond the limitations of tape / analog techniques
                        [and the European model of composers working with technical assistants]
                electronics as a means for transforming instruments, rather than mirroring them
                electronics as a way to make spatialization a compositional determinant
                electronics as a stimulus to acoustic composition; spectralism
                        Boulez / Repons (1984) six soloists & ensemble with electronics
                        Harvey / Advaya (1994) for cello with electronics
                        Nono / Omaggio a Gyšrgy Kurt‡g (1986) alto, flute, clarinet, tuba, with electronics
                        Schneller / Aqua vit (1999) for eight instruments
        in america: the present day
                electronics facilitating improvisation
                the rise of the laptop and the diminishing role of the computer music center
                composing as instrument-building / software design and vice-versa
                cross-pollinations with jazz, rock, etc.
                        Nick Didkovsky / I Kick My Hand (1993) for electric guitar with delay
                        Matt Ingalls / CLAIRE (1999) for clarinet with computer improvisor
                        Jake Rodriguez / Parsnip Maker (2000) for voice with electronics
                        Curtis Bahn / mechanique (2000) for sensor bass and electronics

introduction to Pd
	download: crca.ucsd.edu/~msp
	free, open-source, cross-platform
	objects, messages, number boxes, comments
		bang as a special case of messages
	control and signal rates: ~ objects
		dac~ and adc~
	contextual help, documentation, audio/midi setup, tutorial