Music 680: Special Topics in Music Theory - Electronics in Performance (Fall 2006)
Lecture 1: September 11, 2006

course introduction
	syllabus: weekly reading and listening assignments available via electronic reserve
	attendance and participation
		the historical/aesthetic portion of the course as a seminar discussion
		the technical portion of the course as an interactive lecture format
	programming/creative assignments: front-loaded schedule: from Pd basics to creative projects
	required concert attendance
		including final project presentations at the Salon concert (Thursday 12/14, 7:30 pm)
	B40 door codes

conceptual / historical overview of the genre
	disclaimer about the shameless stereotyping of "europe" and "america"
	tape and fixed-medium works
	        in america: Varese & Cage
			electronics as an expanded orchestrational resource
                        "I believe that the use of noise to make music will continue and increase until we reach 			
			a music produced through the aid of electrical instruments which will make available 
			for musical purposes any and all sounds that can be heard....  Whereas, in the past, the 
			point of disagreement has been between dissonance and consonance, it will be, in the 
			immediate future, between noise and so-called musical sounds." 
				from "Credo: The Future of Music," John Cage, 1937 (reprinted in Silence)
                        Cage / Credo in US (1942) for piano & percussion with turntables
                        Varese / Deserts (1954) orchestra with tape
		in europe: Stockhausen & Nono
			as an expanded mirror-image of the instrumental resources
			drive towards systemization: formulas to relate rhythm, pitch, & timbre
			as the "other," the artificial
				Stockhausen / Kontakte (1958-60) for piano & percussion with tape
				Berio / Laborintus II (1965) for singers, chorus, ensemble, reciter and tape
				Reynolds / Ariadne's Thread (1994) for string quartet and tape
			as a representation of the "real," the political, or the dramatic
				relationship to certain aspects of the GRM / acousmatic tradition in France 				Nono / La fabbrica illuminata (1964) for soprano with tape
				Xenakis / Kraanerg for ensemble with tape
				Nono / ...sofferte onde serene... (1975) for piano with tape
	live-electronic works
		in europe: Stockhausen
			again as pioneer...
			electronics as a way to extend conventional instrumental technique
			thinking of terms of pitches and timbres (organizing timbre as though it were pitch)
				Stockhausen / Mikrophonie I (1964) for tam-tam and six performers 
				Stockhausen / Mantra (1970) for piano duo
		in america: Cage, Tudor, Oliveros, Sonic Arts Union
			electronics as a way beyond instrumental, compositional, and aesthetic clichˇs
			thinking in terms of noise
				Cage / Electronic Music for Piano (1964) for piano with electronics
				Hunt / Cantegral Segment 18.17 (1977) for voice with electronics
		in europe: IRCAM & the Strobel-Stiftung (Freiburg)
			computers as a way beyond the limitations of tape / analog techniques
				[and the European model of composers working with technical assistants]
			electronics as a means for transforming instruments, rather than mirroring them
			electronics as a way to make spatialization a compositional determinant
			electronics as a stimulus to acoustic composition; spectralism
				Boulez / Repons (1984) six soloists & ensemble with electronics
				Harvey / Advaya (1994) for cello with electronics
				Schneller / Aqua vit (1999) for eight instruments
		in america: the present day
			electronics facilitating improvisation
			the rise of the laptop and the diminishing role of the computer music center
			composing as instrument-building / software design and vice-versa
			cross-pollinations with jazz, rock, etc.
				Nick Didkovsky / I Kick My Hand (1993) for electric guitar with delay
				Curtis Bahn / mechanique (2000) for sensor bass and electronics

	free, open-source, cross-platform
	visual arrangement of code
		objects, messages, number boxes, comments
			bang as a special case of messages: the universal "do it!" instruction
	edit mode vs. run mode
		messages and number boxes as interactive objects in run mode
	the law of gravity: signal flow from top to bottom of a patch window
		thus, inlets are at the top of an object, and outlets at the bottom
	inlets and outlets: communication between objects
		leftmost inlet as "hot" for control objects
		outlets typically fire right-to-left to correspond with this
		"trigger" object as a way to control sequence
	basic control objects
		mathematics: +, -, *, /, sin, cos
			and the option of specifying a default value
		relational operators: >, >=, ==, !=, <=, <
		memory cells: int, float
			designing a simple counter using int and +
			and then adding metro to make a timer....
	help resources
		contextual help for objects
		tutorial: "control examples"
		keyboard shortcuts
			edit/run toggle (command-E)
			duplicate (command-D)
			create object (cmd-1), message (cmd-2), number box (cmd-3), comment (cmd-5)
	Kepler's Monsters demonstration