STYPPAX  

An Academic Resource for the Study of Cypriote Sculpture

              Pliny N.H. 34.81: Styppax the Cypriote is famed for one statue, the splanchnoptes; the subject of this statue was a slave of the Olympian Pericles roasting entrails and kindling a fire with the breath from his puffed-out cheeks.
Translation from J. Pollitt, The Art of Ancient Greece: Sources and Documents (Cambridge, 1990).


Table of Contents

I. Bibliography

II. Library (New!) 

III. Research and Discourse

IV. Maps

V. Images and Links of Interest

 

Photo: M. Ohnefalsch-Richter, Kypros, the Bible, and Homer (Berlin, 1893)

 

I. Bibliography
Before browsing through the bibliography, you may want to read this quick note.

Egyptianizing Head from Athienou-Malloura (discovered 1995 by AAP)General Studies (Chronological and Stylistic Analyses)
Museum Catalogues and Special Collections
Early Travelers, Antiquarians and Archaeologists
Site Reports and Material from Excavations
Typological Studies (including Context and Function)
Provenience Studies and Cypriote Sculpture Found Abroad
Divine Iconography: Gods, Goddesses, and other Cult Images

           Principal Male Divinity: Apollo/Herakles/Melqart/Reshef
                            (inc. Master of the Lions and Smiting God)

           Zeus Ammon/Baal Hammon
           Bes and other Egyptian Deities
           Pan
           Aphrodite and the Principal Female Deity or "Great Goddess"
           Artemis
           Temple Boys and other Attendants
           Kourotrophoi
           Miscellaneous 
Special Topics

           The Chatsworth Apollo
Book Reviews

The Semitic Museum: Cesnola On-line Bibliography

Late Archaic "Zeus Keraunios" from Kition (Cyprus Museum)
II. Library (New!) 
This online library contains links to monographs and other volumes that are relevant to the study of Cypriote sculpture. Of special interest are the nineteenth-century antiquarian accounts (Sakellarios, Doell, Cesnola, Colonna-Ceccaldi, Lang, etc), as well as important, learned work from the turn of the century by Myres and Ohnefalsch-Richter. Several more recent volumes are also included. Volumes are listed in order of their date of publication.

Ta Kypriaka: ētoi, Pragmateia peri geōgraphias, archaiologias, statistikēs
Athanasios A . Sakellarios (Athens, 1855)

An incredibly learned and far-ranging account of Cyprus, which touches on language, archaeology, local customs, topography etc. Among his many contributions, Sakellarios was the first person to associate the ancient toponym 'Golgoi' with the archaeological remains north and east of modern Athienou. Searchable, online version. Full .pdf can also be downloaded here. Other volumes/editions are also available. Courtesy of Archive.org.

Die Sammlung Cesnola
Johannes Doell  (St. Petersburg, 1873)
In 1873, J. Doell published an inventory of the Cesnola collection of Cypriote antiquities on behalf of the Hermitage Museum which was considering purchasing the collection. The plates from this volume are reproduced here. For the entire searchable volume and downloadable .pdf (courtesy of Archive.org), go here. The importance of this work cannot be overestimated since it represents a contemporary account of the collection, before the controversial restorations that occurred after the collection arrived at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Cyprus: Its Ancient Cities, Tombs, and Temples
L. Palma di Cesnola (New York, 1878) 
Full-text (on-line) or (downloadable .pdf) of Cesnola's principal narrative of late nineteenth century excavations on Cyprus, including the account of his discoveries of limestone sculptures from sanctuaries in the region of Athienou/Golgoi. The bulk of Cesnola's collection made its way to the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York) forming the nucleus of that museum's collection when it opened in 1880. Cesnola served as the Met's first director. See below for links to the Met's www site on the Cesnola collection, as well as the on-line catalogue of Cesnola artifacts now housed in the Semitic Museum (Harvard).
Courtesy of Archive.org and Google Books.

Narrative of Excavations in a Temple at Dali (Idalium) in Cyprus
R. H. Lang and R. S. Poole (Trans. Royal Society of Literature, UK vol. no. 11, 1878)

Begins on page 30. Primary account of the nineteenth century excavations at Idalion by Robert Hamilton Lang. Includes description of work, as well as discussion of the artifacts recovered by R. S. Poole (see especially, pp. 54-63, where Poole outlines various stylistic influences in Cypriote sculpture). Searchable, online version. Full .pdf can also be downloaded here. Courtesy of Archive.org.

Monuments antiques de Chypre, de Syrie et d'Égypte
Georges Colonna-Ceccaldi (Paris, 1882)

An important account of early explorations in Cyprus. Most significantly, Colonna-Ceccaldi, the French consult to Cyprus, provides a contemporary account of the discoveries of L. Palma di Cesnola at the the site of Golgoi (near modern Athienou), which brought to light a large cache of limestone sculptures (now in the Met, NYC). Searchable, online version. Full .pdf can also be downloaded here. Courtesy of Archive.org.

Salaminia (Cyprus): The Histories, Treasures, and Antiquities of Salamis in the Island of Cyprus 2nd ed.
Alexander Palma di Cesnola (London, 1884)
Full-text and searchable (on-line) copy of Alexander Cesnola's (Luigi's brother) publication of investigations at Salamis. Downloadable .pdf also available. Courtesy of Archive.org.

History of art in Phoenicia and its dependencies (Vol. 2)
Georges Perrot and Charles Chipiez (London, 1885)

A classic volume dealing with Cypriote sculpture, offering an important look at nineteenth-century views on the style and overall character of Cypriote art. Searchable, online version. Full .pdf can also be downloaded here. Courtesy of Archive.org.

Naukratis. Part II. 1885-6
E. A. Gardner and F. Ll. Griffith (London, 1888)

Excavation report on Naukratis, which includes the important discovery of Cypriote-style stone statuettes in the so-called "Temple and Temenos of Aphrodite". Chapter VI is devoted to the statuettes. Searchable, online version. Full .pdf can also be downloaded here. Courtesy of Archive.org and Google Books.

Kypros, the Bible and Homer : oriental civilization, art and religion in ancient times
M. Ohnefalsch-Richter (London, 1893)

Chronicle of Ohnefalsch-Richter's excavations on Cyprus. Includes catalogue of sanctuaries identified by O-R. as well as illustrations of finds. The volume is fundamental for research in Cypriote limestone sculpture, as well as Cypriote religion. Searchable, online version. Full .pdf can also be downloaded. Courtesy of Archive.org.

A Catalogue of the Cyprus Museum with a Chronicle of Excavations Undertaken Since the British Occupation
J. L. Myres and M. Ohnefalsch-Richter (Oxford, 1899)

Represents an important source for the collections of the Cyprus Museum. Chronicle of excavations also includes information on excavated sanctuaries. The catalogue is the result of a complete reorganization of the museum by Myres and Ohnefalsch-Richter. Searchable, online version. Full .pdf can also be downloaded here. Courtesy of Archive.org.

Handbook of the Cesnola collection of antiquities from Cyprus
J. L. Myres (New York, 1914)

Fundamental, early publication of the extensive holdings of Cypriote antiquities in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The bulk of the collection was purchased from Cesnola, including an impressive corpus of limestone sculptures. Includes significant comparative research and is essential for the study of Cypriote sculpture. Searchable, online version. Full .pdf can also be downloaded here. Courtesy of Archive.org. 

See also:
Metropolitan Museum of Art. Handbook No. 3. Sculptures of the Cesnola Collection of Cypriote Antiquities (New York, 1880)

An early museum guide to the Cesnola sculptures at the Met, originally displayed in the "East Entrance Hall and North Aisle". Written by Mr. A. Duncan Savage. 

Amathonte II. Testimonia 2 : Les sculptures découvertes avant 1975
A. Hermary (Paris, 1981)

Publication of limestone sculptures discovered at Amathous, with a contribution by Veronica Tatton-Brown on the Amathous Sarcophagus. Courtesy of École Française d'Athènes.

Amathonte V. Les figurines en terre cuite archaïques et classiques. Les sculptures en pierre
A. Hermary (Athens, 2000)

Publication of limestone sculptures excavated after 1975, serves as supplemental to Vol 2.2 (but also includes terracotta sculptures. Courtesy of École Française d'Athènes.

Ancient Cyprus
A. C. Brown and H. Catling (Oxford, 1986)

Now out-of-print, the text of this important handbook to the Cypriote collections of the Ashmolean is now available on the museum's web site. Includes a useful survey of Cypriote material culture.

Archaische Kalksteinplastik Zypern
Dimitris G. Mylonas (Mannheim, 1998)
Full-text (.pdf) of Dimitris G. Mylonas's Mannheim dissertation on the subject of Cypriote limestone sculpture (ISBN: 3-932178-09-2). 

Ancient Cypriote art in the Musée d'art et d'histoire, Geneva
Vassos Karageorghis and Jacques Chamay (Nicosia, 2004)
Catalogue of the Museum's holdings in Cypriote art, which includes an important collection of limestone sculptures. Although access to the entire book is limited, the entries for stone sculpture are available here.  

Classical Sculpture: Catalogue of the Cypriot, Greek, and Roman Stone Sculpture in the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
I. B. Romano (Philadelphia, 2006)
Catalogue of the Museum's holdings in Classical sculpture, which includes an important collection of Cypriote limestone sculptures. Although access to the entire book is limited, the entries for Cypriote sculpture are available here.  

III. Research and Discourse
This section includes more specialized articles that deal with, or are relevant to the study of, Cypriote sculpture, links to several important journals, and other research tools.

Articles

Chronique des fouilles et découvertes archéologiques à Chypre (in progress)
Bulletin de correspondance hellénique

Initiated in 1959 by Dr. Vassos Karageorghis, the Chronique des fouilles et découvertes archéologiques à Chypre of the Bulletin de correspondance hellénique remains one of the most significant contributions to archaeological research in Cyprus. Designed to offer a comprehensive, annual report of archaeological activity on the island, the Chronique des fouilles, provides an archive of data essential for research. Full-text and searchable (!) online/pdf versions are now available via
Persée, a site sponsored by the French Ministry of State for Higher Education and Research designed to offer digital publication of scientific journals in the field of the humanities. The BCH is among the journals catalogued (as well as Syria, Paléorient, and the Comptes-rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres). A full listing, year by year, from 1959-2001, may be found by following the link above.

Melchior de Vogüé, “Letter to M. Renan” (1862) #1, pp. 345-7.

Melchior de Vogüé, “Letter to M. Renan” (1862) #2, pp. 244-9.

Two nineteenth century letters written by Melchior de Vogüé to E. Renan, the director of the French Mission de Phénicie, responsible for numerous explorations in the region of ancient Golgoi (modern Athienou). The letters are among the only documents of this activity, which included substantial soundings and retrieval of sculptures from sanctuaries in the Athienou area (Golgoi, Arsos, Malloura). They also provide an interesting glimpse into the antiquarian culture of the nineteenth-century and its impact on the archaeology of Cyprus. Sculptures retrieved from this activity (primarily conducted by the team's architect, Edmond Duthoit) are now housed in the Louvre. Courtesy of Archive.org.

J. L. Myres, “A Sanctuary Site at Lefkoniko,” BSA 41 (1945), 53-68 (Plates 11-21).
Myres's brief but important report on his excavations of a sanctuary at Lefkoniko. The limestone sculptures from the sanctuary, now housed in the Cyprus Museum, constitute one of the larger caches of Archaic-Hellenistic sculptures. The sanctuary yielded many votary and divine types associated with the worship of a male divinity. The article also reports on other investigations carried out in Cyprus by Myres at other sites, including Salamis and Lapithos. Courtesy of Google Books.

J. L. Myres, “The Dates and Origins of Cypriote Sculpture,” BSA 41 (1945), 100-104.
A brief, but important article by Myres discussing and, to a certain extent, defending his chronology and classification in his Handbook of the Cesnola Collection (New York, 1914; see full text above in the 'Library'). Courtesy of Google Books.

A. Hermary, “Un nouvel Apollon chypriote au Louvre,” Académie des Incscriptions and Belles-Lettres 132 (1988), 815-33.
An important contribution to the study of Apollo's iconography in Cyprus, with particular emphasis on the fine, draped Apollo of Malloura, in the Louvre. Some images are not accessible due to copyrights. Downloadable .pdf also available. Courtesy of Persée.

A 'Cypriote-Herakles' in the National Museum, Athens (by D. Counts)
Digital photos taken in the Spring of 2002 at the National Museum in Athens and a brief commentary. 

A 'Pastiche' of 5th c. BC Cypriote Sculpture in Providence, RI (by D. Counts)
Among the collections of the Center for Old World Archaeology and Art at Brown University (Providence, RI, USA), there is an enigmatic piece of Cypriote sculpture which features the head of male, wearing a lion-skin headdress, set atop a draped female torso--obviously the product of a flawed restoration. The statue presents an ideal opportunity to discuss two important types of votive statuary commonly found in Archaic and Classical sanctuaries in Cyprus. I would like to thank the Center for Old World Archaeology and Art for permission to publish the piece in this forum. 

Archaic Kouroi in Naucratis: The Case for Cypriot Origin (AJA 105, 2001) by Ian Jenkins
An important recent article by Ian Jenkins (British Museum) discussing the origin of a series of  'Cypriote-style' statuettes discovered at the site of Naukratis in Egypt. The statuettes were previously thought to be made of alabaster, however Jenkins provides evidence that they are in fact gypsum. Jenkins argues that these so-called alabaster kouroi, as well as the limestone statuettes discovered in the same area, are of Cypriote origin and were produced in SE Cyprus for export . The question of provenience for Cypriote statuettes found abroad is a hot topic and has been the focus of numerous recent studies (see Bibliography). The link is to a full-text (.pdf) made available by the American Journal of Archaeology. Click here if you would like to see the Abstract.

'Sculpture in Roman Cyprus' (published in Apollo July 2003 by J. Fejfer)
An article available on-line which appeared in Apollo (The International Magazine of the Arts) July 2003. Fejfer teaches Roman archaeology at the University of Copenhagen and is co-editor of Ancient Akamas: 1. Settlement and Environment (Aarhus, 1995). Unfortunately, the on-line article linked above does not contain the illustrations; access to the full-text article in Apollo with illustrations is available via registration on the magazine's www site.

Tamassos Limestone Funerary Sculptures
The discovery of six limestone sculptures associated with the so-called 'Royal Tombs' of Tamassos in 1996 is one of the most exciting discoveries of Cypriote sculpture in the last several decades. Four lions and two sphinxes were unearthed, almost fully intact and preserving traces of their original color. The following brief announcement by Demos Christou (then director of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus) from the on-line archives of Archaeology magazine discusses the discovery and illustrates two of the lions. The pieces were published more fully by M. Solomidou-Ieronymidou in the RDAC (2001). See Bibliography under 'General Studies'.

Journals

Bulletin de correspondance hellénique
A digital archive of the French School publications, including the Bulletin de correspondance hellénique (1877-2000!) plus all of the BCH supplements. For the study of Cypriote sculpture, one now has access to the extremely important reports on archaeological research and discoveries in Cyprus (Chronique des Fouilles et découvertes archéologiques à Chypre) published annually in the BCH. On the homepage, click CEFAEL on the left menu. From here you may 'Browse' all of the archived publications and series or 'Search' for titles and authors.  Also available (see above in the 'Library'): A. Hermary, Amathonte V: Les figurines en terre cuite archaïques et classiques. Les sculptures en pierre (2000) and Amathonte II: Testimonia 2: Les sculptures découvertes avant 1975 (1981); other volumes in the Études Chypriotes series (including more in the Amathonte series); and the complete excavation volumes for Delos and Delphi.
Courtesy of the École Française d'Athènes.

Revue archéologique
Main website of the journal. Provides TOC for last ten years, including some articles available as .pdfs. The RA is one of only a few major journals that frequently highlight Cypriote material culture; the journal also includes book reviews on Cypriote volumes. 

Cahier du Centre d'Etudes Chypriotes (CCEC)
Website of the Centre d'Études Chypriotes with information regarding this important journal of Cypriote archaeology. Especially useful is the listing of the Table of Contents for each issue published since 1984. The Cahier is edited by A. Hermary, with the assistance of S. Fourrier and M. Yon. 

Thetis: Mannheimer Beiträge zur klassischen Archäologie und Geschichte Griechenlands und Zyperns
Website of the journal Thetis, an interdisciplinary journal of Greek and Cypriote archaeology and history, edited by Reinhard Stupperich (University of Heidelberg) and Heinz A. Richter (University of Mannheim). Especially useful is the listing of the Table of Contents for each issue; the journal has been published since 1994.

Research Tools

The PASP Database for the Use of Scripts on Cyprus
Searchable online version of The PASP Database for the Use of Scripts on Cyprus. This website, which is maintained by the Program in Aegean Scripts and Prehistory at the University of Texas, contains the complete corpus of inscriptions offered in the print version, The PASP Database for the Use of Scripts on Cyprus compiled by Nicolle Hirschfeld (Salamanca, 1996). Of particular interest are the many inscriptions found on limestone sculptures, altars, and stelae. Search Hints: limestone or statue under the search field 'material/object' or simply search by site (e.g., Golgoi, Idalion, Voni). Extremely valuable for tracking inscriptions to divinities in Cypriote sanctuaries; type the name of the divinity (Apollo, Artemis, etc.) under the search field 'Nature'.

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (Princeton, 1976)
Edited by Richard Stillwell, the somewhat outdated but nevertheless valuable Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites can still be consulted for basic information on numerous sites in the classical Mediterranean. Cypriote sites are featured prominently, including Amathous, Chytroi, Golgoi, Idalion, Kition, Kourion, Lapithos, Marion, Palaipaphos (Kouklia), Salamis, Soloi, and Tamassos. Most entries, written by K. Nicolaou, include bibliographies (with references through the 1970s).  Perseus offers a searchable index of the volume.

IV. Maps
Map of the Eastern Mediterranean 
*V. Karageorghis, et al. Ancient Art from Cyprus (New York, 2000).
map.jpg (118020 bytes)
Map of Cyprus with Principal Archaeological Sites 
*V. Karageorghis, et al. Ancient Art from Cyprus (New York, 2000).
Cyprus.jpg (99144 bytes)

The Geography of the Eastern Mediterranean
Brief description and map from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 
Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art. "Geography of the Eastern Mediterranean". In Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/m_wae/hd_m_wae.htm (October 2002)

Visitor's Map of Cyprus
Published by the Cyprus Tourist Organization, in cooperation with the Dept. of Lands and Surveys
A fantastic, up-to-date, map of modern Cyprus, with ancient sites also listed. High resolution image can be zoomed to offer great clarity for smaller regions.

V. Images, Databases and Links of Interest

(New!) George and Nefeli Giabra Pierides Collection (Bank of Cyprus Cultural Foundation)
Website of the Museum, housed at the Bank of Cyprus Cultural Foundation (Nicosia). Impressive collection of Cypriote antiquities, with a representative collection of Cypriote limestone sculptures (especially votary heads). Scroll down for thumbnail images of display cases. The collection was published by V. Karageorghis in 2002 (see bibliography under 'Museums and Catalogues')

Museum of Cycladic Art
Website of the Museum of Cycladic Art in Athens (Greece), which houses a small, but interesting corpus of Cypriote antiquities, including sculpture. Highlights include the upper torso of an archaic, draped make wearing a conical cap, as well as two Classical limestone statues featuring, respectively, a reclining male and seated female.

The Department of Antiquities, Republic of Cyprus
Website of the Department of Antiquities (Cyprus) launched in 2005. The site contains a variety of useful resources for archaeologists and visitors, including special sections on the various sites and museums under the aegis of the department. There are also links to information on current excavations (local and foreign projects), news, department publications, cultural heritage issues, archaeological legislation, as well as downloadable forms (excavation permits). 

The Limassol District Archaeological Museum
Website of the LDAM maintained by the Municipality of Limassol. Includes brief history, chronological chart, and images. Images include photos of the gallery space with objects on display, as well as some additional photos of objects in the collection. In general, the image quality is only average. Viewable pieces of limestone sculpture include:
          1) a late archaic female votary (with well preserved paint!)
          2) the famous Hathor capital from Amathous
          3) the colossal Bes (also from Amathous)
          4) a late limestone head from the so-called Sanctuary of Zeus Labranios
There is also an English version.

Kourion
Webpage dedicated to the archaeological site of Kourion. Of special interest for the study of Cypriote sculpture is the famous Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates.

The Kelsey Museum of Archaeology (University of Michigan)
Database search for the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology at the University of Michigan. The Kelsey Museum houses a fine collection of Cypriote sculpture, primarily from the site of Golgoi. The sculptures were originally part of the Cesnola Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York) and were bought at auction in the Anderson Gallery sales of 1928. The limestone and terracotta sculptures in the Kelsey were published by F. Albertson in 1991 (see Bibliography, 'Museum Catalogues and Special Collections'). Search Hint: use site name 'Golgoi'.

The Cesnola Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York)  
A site dedicated to the Cypriote galleries at the Met. There is some background information on the collection and a selection of images. The Cesnola Collection is among the largest and most important collections of Cypriote antiquities in the world, especially with regards to sculpture. Accompanying the new installation is a lavishly illustrated volume (V. Karageorghis, et al. Ancient Art from Cyprus: The Cesnola Collection (New York, 2000).
    Also from the Met: Timeline of Art History
    Illustrated guide to the collections of the Metropolitan Museum, with several links of interest to Cypriote
    archaeologists, including: 
            The Cesnola Collection of the Metropolitan Museum
            Prehistoric Cypriot Art and Culture
            Cyprus - Island of Copper
            Geometric and Archaic Cypriot Art
            Hellenistic and Roman Cypriot Art

   Each section provides a useful survey with links to examples from the museum's collections
   of Cypriote limestone sculpture:
             Statue of a Priest with a Dove
             Amathous Sarcophagus (with multiple views)
             Golgoi Sarcophagus (with multiple views)
             Aphrodite with Winged Eros
             Temple Boy

The Ashmolean Museum Collection of Cypriote Art
On-line guide to the Cypriote collections of the Ashmolean Museum including historical overview of the collection, chronological chart of Cypriote art, information on proveniences and donors, as well as a link to the museums (now out-of-print) handbook by A. C. Brown and H. Catling (see link above under 'Research and Discourse'). 

The David and Alfred Smart Museum of Art (Chicago)
Located on the University of Chicago's Hyde Park campus, the David and Alfred Smart Museum of Art houses a permanent collection of over 7000 objects, spanning five centuries of both Western and Eastern civilizations. Among the holdings, in a collection of Cypriote pottery and some Cypriote sculpture. Access to the museum's collections is available on-line via the Smart Museum Online Database Project. Search Hints: use Cypriote under Curator's Object Type and sculpture under Registrar's Object Type. Images are available for several of the pieces; the quality is often disappointing.

The John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art (Sarasota, FL)
An impressive collection of Cypriote sculpture is housed in the Ringling Museum. The objects were purchased as part of the Metropolitan Museum's sale of 'duplicates' in the Cesnola collection in 1928 by Anderson Galleries. Part of the collection has now been placed on-line. Inconsistencies in classification detract from the functionality of the search engine; however, but browsing the 'Ancient Art' collection one finds several examples of Cypriote limestone sculptures (including: several votary types, a banquet stele fragment, and a temple boy). A panoramic view of the gallery of Cypriote sculpture in the Astor Library is available from the Ringling's website; walk forward into the next room to view the Cypriote sculptures on display. The collection was published by N. Kershaw in 1983 (see Bibliography, 'Museum Catalogues and Special Collections'; see also Minter 1971).   

The Norwich Free Academy Slater Memorial Museum Cast Collection (Norwich, CT)
A spectacular and rather unexpected collection of ancient casts can be found in the Slater Museum of the Norwich Free Academy (CT). The plaster cast collection is among the largest and best preserved in the United States and includes masterpieces of ancient sculpture (including architectural sculpture), as well as large collection of Cypriote sculptures from the Cesnola Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York). Images from the collection of plaster casts in the Slater Memorial Museum are available through the On-line Gallery of the Slater Cast Collection.

A. G. Leventis Gallery of Cypriot Antiquities (The British Museum)
The British Museum houses a substantial collection of Cypriote sculpture (mostly from the excavations of Lang at ancient Idalion). A selection of images are now available on the BM website via COMPASS, the museum's on-line collections database. There are approximately 70 objects of Cypriote art (ceramics, terracotta figurines, limestone statuary, metal objects, coins) currently available. There are also three, illustrated thematic presentations (on Cyprus in general, Enkomi, and Aphrodite). Highlights (re: sculpture) include the Marion 'kouros', the so-called 'Priest of Idalion', a temple-boy, and a marble, Julio-Claudian portrait. 

The Medelhavsmuseet (Stockholm)
The Medelhavsmuseet houses an impressive collection of Cypriote antiquities (including limestone and terracotta sculpture), primarily from the excavations of the Swedish Cyprus Expedition. The collection is being re-installed in a new gallery as part of the on-going efforts of the Leventis Foundation (see below) to exhibit and publish collections of Cypriote material in foreign museums. Aside from the SCE, the collections in the Medelhavsmuseet are published in Karageorghis 1977a and Karageorghis, et al. 2003 (see Bibliography under 'Museum Catalogues and Special Collections'); see also Törnkvist 1972 (under 'Typology and Attributes') for a discussion of the terracotta statuary of Ayia Irini. 

The Leventis Foundation (Nicosia, Cyprus)
The Leventis Foundation, under the direction of Dr. Vassos Karageorghis, has made enormous efforts to re-install and publish collections of Cypriote antiquities housed in foreign museums. Leventis has published a significant number of museum catalogues (listed under 'Publications'). Those of special significance for Cypriote sculpture are listed in the Bibliography under 'Museum Catalogues and Special Collections'. 

Pierides Foundation Museum (Larnaca, CYPRUS) Cypriote Limestone Heads (Photo: Ohnefalsch-Richter)"Cypriote-Herakles" from Idalion (British Museum)Excavations at Tamassos, Cyprus (Photo: Ohnefalsch-Richter)Luigi Palma di CesnolaEarly Classical Wreathed Votary (Metropolitan Museum, New York)Aphrodite (Cyprus Museum)
A searchable database of the collection of Cypriote antiquities in the Pierides Foundation Museum. There are multiple images of every artifact, as well as Quicktime VR movies for some. While the strength of the collection lies in its ceramics and terracottas (especially lamps), there is also a significant corpus of stone sculpture. The site also contains a history of the museum and the Pierides family.

The Cesnola Collection of the Semitic Museum (Harvard)
An excellent website devoted to the collection of Cypriote antiquities housed in the Semitic Museum at Harvard University (Cambridge, MA). The site is still in its developmental phases, however much information is already available. Foremost, there is a searchable database of the collection (strengths are in ceramics, however some figural art is also represented including 16 examples of votive statuary). You will also find a useful summary of the major phases of Cypriote art and discussions of materials and wares (in progress), as well as information regarding the collection itself and its previous owner, the infamous Luigi Palma di Cesnola. Finally, there is also an extensive Bibliography of studies in Cypriote archaeology covering all periods.

The Belcher Collection of Cypriot Antiquities (Institute of Cypriot Studies, SUNY-Albany)
On-line catalogue of the collection of Cypriote antiquities housed at SUNY-Albany. The collection can be consulted through two search functions: a Browse Artifacts search (which provides a comprehensive overview) or an advanced, Artifact Search (which requires input of search criteria). A small number of limestone (including an interesting female head with city-crown and an incised larnax) and terracotta sculptures are represented in the collection. Hint: search 'stone' or 'terracotta' under Ware/Material using the Artifact Search. There is also a useful 'tour' of the collection that puts selected pieces within an historical framework. 

The Worcester Art Museum
A splendid, late archaic head of a female votary/divinity wearing an elaborate headdress from the ancient art galleries of the Worcester Art Museum. 

Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna
An impressive and elegant draped male votary from the important collection of Cypriote sculpture housed in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. The Cypriote collection has recently been published by Bernhard-Walcher, et al. in 1999. (see Bibliography under 'Catalogues')

Musée du Louvre
An archaic draped female statue from the large collections of Cypriote sculpture housed in the Louvre. You can also view an image of the statuette of a lyre player, reportedly from Knidos but clearly of Cypriote style. These are just two pieces from a large and impressive collection of Cypriote sculpture. The comprehensive catalogue by Hermary 1989 (see Bibliography under 'Catalogues') has become the de facto handbook for the study of Cypriote sculpture. The Louvre also maintains a searchable database 'Atlas'. This system is in the process of being built and is already functional. When completed it will be a valuable resource. As it stands now, the sculptures from Cyprus have not been included.  

The Athienou Archaeological Project
The Athienou Archeological Project is sponsored by Davidson College and directed by Michael K. Toumazou (Davidson), with the assistance of Associate Directors Derek B. Counts (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee) and P. Nick Kardulias (College of Wooster). The website includes information regarding the field school and excavations, as well as images of the site and a selection of artifacts. There are also links to AJA abstracts and preliminary reports. Excavations at Athienou have brought to light one of the largest caches of Cypriote sculpture in the last 50 years. For a preliminary study of the limestone sculpture from the site, see D. Counts, 'Contributions to the Study of Cypriote Sculpture: Limestone Votives from Athienou-Malloura (Ph.D. Diss. Brown University, 1998), available through Proquest Dissertation Express.

U.S. State Department. International Cultural Property Protection
U.S. State Department site dedicated to International Cultural Property Protection and the implementation of agreements (1999, 2002, 2007) between the United States and the Republic of Cyprus for the protection of cultural property. The site divides the information into two separate sections 1) Byzantine Ritual and ecclesiastical ethnological material and 2) Pre-Classical and Classical archaeological material. Image databases accompany each section.




This site is maintained by Derek B. Counts

            Associate Professor of Classical Art and Archaeology
            Department of Art History (Departmental Home Page)
            University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM)
            Milwaukee, WI 53201
            Email: dbc@uwm.edu
            http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/ArtHistory/faculty/counts.html

Ó Derek B. Counts        Site Last Updated: 05/01/2013