DIVINE ICONOGRAPHY: GODS, GODDESSES, and other CULT IMAGES

I have sub-divided this section for ease of browsing into several categories. Beginning with a list of general sources dealing with Cypriote religion, I then break down the references in terms of the iconography presented by the sculpture itself. The labeling of ‘divine’ images in Cyprus is wrought with difficulties (inscriptions only seem to complicate the issue) and I have chosen accepted names for the various classes. When disagreements occur, I have tried to list alternate divine names as well (e.g., Zeus-Ammon/Baal Hammon).  There is also a Miscellaneous ‘catch-all’ category which includes a variety of references not easily pigeon-holed into one of my divisions.

Quick Jump to Categories

General Discussions
Principal Male Divinity (Apollo, Cypriote-Herakles, Melqart, Reshef, etc.)
Zeus Ammon (Baal Hammon)
Bes
Pan
Principal Female Goddess/Great Goddess (Aphrodite, Hathor, etc)
Artemis
Temple Boy
Kourotrophos
Miscellaneous


General Discussions on Cypriote Divinities and Cult

Beer 1991.  C. Beer, ‘Cultes chypriotes et éléments phéniciens?’ in E. Acquaro, ed., Atti del II Congresso Internazionale di Studi Fenici e Punici (Rome), 357-65.

Beer 1992.  C. Beer, ‘Ethnic Diversity and Financial Differentiation in Cypriote Sanctuaries,’ in T. Linders and B. Alroth, eds. Economics of Cult in the Ancient Greek World (Uppsala), 73-84.

Bennett 1980.  C. Bennett, ‘The Cults of the Ancient Greek Cypriots’ (Ph.D. Dissertation, University of  Pennsylvania).

Burkert 1985.  W. Burkert, Greek Religion (Cambridge).

Caubet 1979.  A. Caubet, La Religion a Chypre dans l'Antiquite (Lyon).

 

Connelly 1989.  J. B. Connelly, “Standing Before One”s God: Votive Sculpture and the Cypriote Religious Tradition,” Biblical Archaeologist 52, 210-18.

Counts 1998.  D. Counts, “Contributions to the Study of Cypriote Sculpture: Limestone Votives from Athienou-Malloura, (Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University).

Counts 2001. D. Counts, "Prolegomena to the Study of Cypriote Sculpture," Cahier du Centre d’Études Chypriotes 31, 153-68.

Counts 2004. D. Counts, "Art and Religion in the Cypriote Mesaoria: The View from Athienou-Malloura," CCEC 34, 173-90.

Counts 2008. D. Counts, " The Master of the Lions in Cyprus : Hybridity, Representation and the Culture within Cypriote Cultures" AJA 112, 3-27.

Counts 2009a. D. Counts, "Exploring Cultures in Contact: Postcolonial Models and Votive Religion in Ancient Cyprus , "in R.Bol, K. Kleibl, and S. Rogge (eds.), Zypern – Insel im Schnittpunkt interkultureller Kontakte. Adaption und Abgrenzung von der Spätbronzezeit bis zum 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Symposium, Mainz 7.-8. Dezember 2006. /Schriften des Instituts für Interdisziplinäre Zypern-Studien 8 (Münster), 33-47.

Counts 2009b. D. Counts, "From Siwa to Cyprus : The Assimilation of Zeus Ammon in the Cypriote Pantheon," in D.Michaelides, V. Kassianidou, R. Merrillees (eds.), Egypt and Cyprus in Antiquity ( Oxford ), 104-117.

Counts 2010. D. Counts, "Divine Symbols and Royal Aspirations: The Master of Animals in Iron Age Cypriote Religion," in D. B. Counts and B. Arnold (eds.), The Master of Animals in Old World Iconography ( Budapest ), 135-150.

De Salvia 1989.  F. de Salvia, “The Cypriots in the Saite Nile Delta: The Cypro-Egyptian Religious Syncretism,” in The Archaeology, Geography, and History of the Egyptian Delta in Pharaonic Times (Oxford), 81-118.

Dussaud 1950. R. Dussaud, "Kinyras. Étude sur les anciens cultes chypriotes, Syria 27, 57ff.

Gjerstad 1933. E. Gjerstad, "Die Kultgeschichte eines Cyprischen Temenos," ArchRW 30, 308-59.

Hadjioannou 1978.  K. Hadjioannou, “On Some Disputed Matters of the Ancient Religion of Cyprus,” RDAC, 103-10.

Hermary 1982.  A. Hermary, “Divinités chypriotes, I,” RDAC, 164-73.

Hermary 1986a.  A. Hermary, “Divinités chypriotes, II,” RDAC, 164-72. 

Hermary 1986b.A. Hermary, “Influences orientales et occidentales sur l”iconographie des divinities chypriotes (VIIe - IIIe s.av.J.-C.),” in V. Karageorghis, ed., Cyprus Between the Orient and Occident, Acts of the International Archaeological Symposium (Nicosia), 405-10.

Hermary 1989. A. Hermary, Les Antiquités de Chypre: Sculptures (Paris).

Hermary 1996. A. Hermary, "Les sanctuaries chypriotes," L'Archéologue 25, 39-43.

Hermary 1998. A. Hermary, "Votive Offerings in the Sanctuaries of Cyprus, Rhodes and Crete during the Late Geometric and Archaic Periods," in V. Karageorghis and N. Stampolides, eds. Eastern Mediterranean: Cyprus-Dodecanese-Crete, 16th-6th Cent. BC (Athens), 265-76. 

Karageorghis 1981.  V Karageorghis, “De l”adaptation et de la transformation de la mythologie grecque a Chypre durant les périodes archaïque et classique,” in L. Kahil and C. Augé, eds., Mythologie gréco-romaine. mythologies périphériques. Colloques CNRS (Paris), 77-87.

Karageorghis 1997.  V. Karageorghis, “Greek Gods and Heroes in Cyprus: Preview of the Problem,” in O. Palagia, ed. Greek Offerings: Essays on Greek Art in Honour of John Boardman (Oxford).

Karageorghis 1998.  V. Karageorghis, Greek Gods and Heroes in Ancient Cyprus (Athens).

Loulloupis 1979.  M. C. Loulloupis, “Evidence of Egyptian Cult in Cyprus,” in Acts of the First International Congress of Egyptology, Cairo 1976  (Munich), 431-39.

Masson 1960.  O. Masson, “Cultes indigènes, cultes grecs et cultes orientaux à Chypre,” in O. Eissfeldt, ed., Eléments orientaux dans la réligion grecque ancienne (Paris), 129-42.  

Matthäus 2005. H. Matthäus, "LAMPROS HLIOU KUKLOS. Phoenician Deities and Demons: A Study in the Transfer of Iconography and Ideology, "in V. Karagageorghis, H. Matthäus, and S. Rogge (eds.), Cyprus : Religion and Society from the Late Bronze Age to the End of the Archaic Period (Möhnese).

Michaelidou-Nicolaou 1978.  I.  Michaelidou-Nicolaou, “The Cult of Oriental Divinities in Cyprus: Archaic to Roman Times,” in M. de Boer and T. A. Edridge, eds., Hommages à Maarten J. Vermaseren (Leiden), 791-800.

Mitford 1946.  T. B. Mitford, “Religious Documents from Greek and Roman Cyprus,” JHS 66, 36-9.

Mylonas 1999. D. Mylonas, Archaische Kalkensteinplastik Zyperns (Diss. Mannheim).

Myres 1914.  J. L. Myres, Handbook of the Cesnola Collection of Antiquities from Cyprus, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York  (New York).

 

Nicolaou 1964-1965.  K. Nicolaou, “The Religion of Cyprus,” Stasinos II, 20.

 

Ohnefalsch-Richter 1893.  M. Ohnefalsch-Richter Kypros, the Bible and Homer (London).

Reyes 1994.  A. T. Reyes, Archaic Cyprus: A Study of the Textual and Archaeological Evidence (Oxford).

SCE.  E. Gjerstad, et al. Swedish Cyprus Expedition (Stockholm, 1934-1972).

Sørensen 1994.  L. W Sørensen, “The Divine Image?” in R. Laffineur and F. Vandenabeele, eds. Cypriote Stone Sculpture (Brussels-Liege, 1994),  79-89.

Senff 1993.  R. Senff, Das Apollonheiligtum von Idalion: Architektur und Statuenausstattung eines Zyprischen Heiligtums, SIMA  94 (Jonserd).  

Sjöqvist 1933. E. Sjöqvist, "Die Kulturgeschichte eines cyprischen Temenos," ArchRW 30 (1933), 308-59.

Sophocleous 1985.  S. Sophocleous, Atlas des représentations chypro-archaïques des divinités (Göteborg).

Tatton-Brown 1997.  V. Tatton-Brown, Ancient Cyprus (London).

Tatton-Brown 2000. V. Tatton-Brown, "Keeping the Gods at Bay: Notes on Ancient Cyprus," in G. R. Tsetskhladze, N. W. Pragg,  and A. M. Snodgrass, eds. Periplous: Papers on Classical Art and Archaeology Presented to Sir John Boardman (Oxford), 336-43.

Ulbrich 2001.  A. Ulbrich, “An Archaeology of Cult?  Cypriot Sanctuaries in 19th Century Archaeology,” in V. Tatton-Brown, ed., Cyprus in the Nineteenth Century AD: Fact, Fancy, and Fiction (London), 93-106. Yon 1986.  

Ulbrich 2008. A. Ulbrich, Kypris : Heiligtuemer und Kulte weiblicher Gottheiten auf Zypern in der kyproarchaischen und kyproklassischen Epoche (Koenigszeit) (Ugarit-Verlag).

Vandenabeele 2001. F. Vandenabeele, "Cypriote Terracottas Representing Gods," in P. M. Fischer (ed.), Contributions to the Archaeology and History of the Bronze and Iron Ages in the Eastern Mediterranean. Studies in Honor of Paul Åström (Osterreichesches Archaologisches Institut Sonderschriften Band 39), Vienna, 91-9. See p. 92 for Zeus Ammon.

M. Yon, “Cultes phéniciens à Chypre: l”interprétation chypriote,” in C. Bonnet, et al., eds. Religio Phoenicia. Studia Phoenicia 4 (Narmur, 1986), 127-52.
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 Principal Male Divinity: Apollo/Herakles/Melqart/Reshef (inc. ‘Master of the Lions’ and ‘Smiting God’)

Bisi 1980. A. M. Bisi, "Da Bes a Herakles," RSF 8, 19-42.

Bisi 1986.  A. M. Bisi, ‘Le « Smiting-God » dans les milieu phéniciens d’occident: un réexamen de la question,’ in Studia Phoenicia 4, 169-87.

Bonnet 1988.  C. Bonnet, Melqart: cultes et mythes de l’Héraclès tyrien en Méditerranée (Leuven).

Bonnet 1992.  C. Bonnet and Jourdain-Annequin, eds. Héraclès: d’une rive à autre de la Mediterranée. bilan et perspectives (Brussels).

Bonnet 1997.  C. Bonnet, ‘Melqart,’ LIMC 8, 830-4.

 

Bounni 1986.  A. Bounni, ‘Iconographie d’Heracles en Syrie,’ in L. Kahil, et al., eds. Iconographie classique et identités régionales  (Paris), 377-387.

Brundage 1958.  B. Brundage, ‘Herakles the Levantine: A Comprehensive View,’ JNES 17, 225-6.

Caubet 1973. A. Caubet, "Héraclès ou Hathor. Orfèvrerie chypriote," Revue du Louvre 23, 1-6.

Caubet 1979.  A. Caubet, La Religion a Chypre dans l'Antiquite (Lyon), 32-5.

Collon 1972. D. Collon, "The Smiting God: A Study of a Bronze in the Pomerance Collection in New York," Levant 4, 111-34.

Connelly 1988.  J. B. Connelly, Votive Sculpture of Hellenistic Cyprus (New York), esp. 45-6 on Apollo at Voni.

Counts 1998.  D. Counts, “Contributions to the Study of Cypriote Sculpture: Limestone Votives from Athienou-Malloura, (Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University).

Counts 2001. D. Counts, "Prolegomena to the Study of Cypriote Sculpture," Cahier du Centre d’Études Chypriotes 31, 129-181.

Counts 2008. D. Counts, " The Master of the Lions in Cyprus : Hybridity, Representation and the Culture within Cypriote Cultures" AJA 112, 3-27.

Counts 2009. D. Counts, "Exploring Cultures in Contact: Postcolonial Models and Votive Religion in Ancient Cyprus , "in R.Bol, K. Kleibl, and S. Rogge (eds.), Zypern – Insel im Schnittpunkt interkultureller Kontakte. Adaption und Abgrenzung von der Spätbronzezeit bis zum 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Symposium, Mainz 7.-8. Dezember 2006. /Schriften des Instituts für Interdisziplinäre Zypern-Studien 8 (Münster), 33-47.

Counts 2010. D. Counts, "Divine Symbols and Royal Aspirations: The Master of Animals in Iron Age Cypriote Religion," in D. B. Counts and B. Arnold (eds.), The Master of Animals in Old World Iconography ( Budapest ), 135-150.

Culican 1960-1961. W. Culican, "Melqart Representations on Phoenician Seals," Abr-Nahrain 2, 41-54.

Culican 1968.  W. Culican, “The Iconography of Some Phoenician Seals and Seal Impressions,” Australian Journal of Biblical Archaeology 1, 50-103.

Donnay 1985.  G. Donnay, “Autor de l”Héraclès chypriote,” in T. Papadopolou and S. Chatzestylees, eds., Praktika tou deufterou Deithnous Kypriologikou Synedriou (Nicosia, 1985)., 373-7.

Gaber 1994.  P. Gaber, “In Search of Adonis,” in R. Laffineur and F. Vandenabeele, eds. Cypriote Stone Sculpture (Brussels-Liege, 1994), 161-5.

Gaber and Dever 1998.  P. Gaber and W. Dever, “The Birth of Adonis?” Archaeology Odyssey (Spring), 48-55, cont. p. 61.

Gawlikowski 1994.  M. Gawlikowski, “Reshef,” LIMC 7, 623-4.

Glover 1981.  S. Glover, “The Cults of Apollo in Cyprus: A Preliminary Study,” in J. Biers and D. Soren, eds., Studies in Cypriote Archaeology (Los Angeles), 145-51.

Hermary 1988.  A. Hermary, “Un nouvel Apollon chypriote au Louvre,” Académie des Incscriptions and Belles-Lettres (Paris), 815-33.

 

Hermary 1989. A. Hermary, Les Antiquités de Chypre: Sculptures (Paris), 299.

 

Hermary 1990.  A. Hermary, “Herakles (Cypri),” LIMC 5, 192-6.

Hermary 1992.  A. Hermary, “Quelques remarques sur les origines proche-orientales de l”iconographie d”Héraclès,” in C. Bonnet and Jourdain-Annequin, eds. Héraclès: d”une rive à autre de la Mediterranée bilan et perspectives (Brussels), 129-43.

Holloway 1994.R. R. Holloway, The Archaeology of Early Rome and Latium (London), 78. (for a Herakles in Cypriote style found in the sanctuary of Sant’ Omobono in Rome).

Karageorghis 1989. V. Karageorghis, "A New ‘Geryon’ Terracotta Statuette from Cyprus ." Eretz-Israel 20, 92-7.

Karageorghis 1998.  V. Karageorghis, Greek Gods and Heroes in Ancient Cyprus (Athens), esp. 38-89, 114-119, and passim.

Lipinski 1987. E. Lipinski, “Resheph Amyklos,” in E. Lipinski, ed., Phoenicia and the East Mediterranean in the First Millennium BC (Leuven), 87-99.

Mylonas 1999. D. Mylonas, Archaische Kalkensteinplastik Zyperns (Diss. Mannheim).

Myres 1914.  J. L. Myres, Handbook of the Cesnola Collection of Antiquities from Cyprus, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York  (New York).

 

Nick 2001. G. Nick, "Apollon als Lowenbandiger im ostlichen Mittelmeergebiet," IstMitt 51, 191-216.

 

Nizette-Godfroid 1975.  J. Nizette-Godfroid, “Quelques figurations du maîtres des lions a Chypre,” RDAC, 96-104.

 

Senff 1993.  R. Senff, Das Apollonheiligtum von Idalion: Architektur und Statuenausstattung eines Zyprischen Heiligtums, SIMA  94 (Jonserd).  

 

Sophocleous 1985.  S. Sophocleous, Atlas des représentations chypro-archaïques des divinités (Göteborg), 28-56 and  passim.

 

Steinhart 2004. M. Steinhart, "Die Reliefs des Geroneus von Golgoi. Ein Beitrag zur Rezeption griechischer Mythen in der zyprischen Kunst," Thetis 10.

Tatton-Brown 1979. V. Tatton-Brown, "A Terracotta ‘Geryon’ in the British Museum ." RDAC, 281-7.

Teixidor 1983.  J. Teixidor, “L”Interprétation phénicienne d”Héraclès et d”Apollon,” RHR, 243-55.

Tzavellas-Bonnet 1985. C. Tzavellas-Bonnet, "Melqart, Bès, et l 'Héraclès Dactyle de Crète," in E. Gubel and E. Lipinksi, Phoenicia and its Neighbors. Studia Phoenicia 3 (Leuven), 231-40.

Yon 1973.  M. Yon, “Lions archaïques,” in Salamine de Chypre IV.  Anthologie Salaminienne (Paris), 19-47.

Yon 1986.  M. Yon, “A propos de l”Héraklès de Chypre,” Iconographie Classique et Identites  (Paris), 287-97.

Yon 1992.  M. Yon, “Héraclès à Chypre,” in C. Bonnet and Jourdain-Annequin, eds. Héraclès: d”une rive à autre de la Mediterranée bilan et perspectives (Brussels), 145-63.

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Zeus Ammon (Baal Hammon)

Bisi 1982. A.M. Bisi, 'Su una terracotta di tipo cipriota da 'Amrit,' RSF 10, 189-96 and plates.

Buchholz 1991. H.-G. Buchholz, ‘Der Gott Hammon und Zeus Ammon auf Zypern,’ AM 106, 85-128.  

Caubet 1979.  A. Caubet, La Religion a Chypre dans l'Antiquite (Lyon), 27.

Classen 1959. C. J. Classen, "The Libyan God Ammon in Greece Before 331 BC," Historia 8, 349-55.

Counts 1998.  D. Counts, “Contributions to the Study of Cypriote Sculpture: Limestone Votives from Athienou-Malloura, (Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University).

Counts 2001. D. Counts, "Prolegomena to the Study of Cypriote Sculpture," Cahier du Centre d’Études Chypriotes 31, 163-4.

Counts 2008. D. Counts, " The Master of the Lions in Cyprus : Hybridity, Representation and the Culture within Cypriote Cultures" AJA 112, 3-27.

Counts 2009. D. Counts, "From Siwa to Cyprus : The Assimilation of Zeus Ammon in the Cypriote Pantheon," in D.Michaelides, V. Kassianidou, R. Merrillees (eds.), Egypt and Cyprus in Antiquity ( Oxford ), 104-117.

Culican 1968.  W. Culican, “The Iconography of Some Phoenician Seals and Seal Impressions,” Australian Journal of Biblical Archaeology 1, 68-9, esp. note 91.  

Flourentzos 1995.  P. Flourentzos, “The Sanctuary at Archangelos in the Vicinity of Nicosia,” RDAC, esp. 218.  

Fourrier 2001. S. Fourrier, "Naucratis, Chypre, et la Grèce de l'Est: le commerce des sculptures 'chypro-ioniennes,' in Höckmann and Kreikenbom 2001, especially 44-5.  

Hermary 1981.  A. Hermary, Amathonte II, Testimonia 2: La Sculpture (Paris), 20-1.

Hermary 1989. A. Hermary, Les Antiquités de Chypre: Sculptures (Paris), 305.

Hermary 1992.  A. Hermary, “Représentations de Zeus Ammon à Chypre: À propos d”un article récent,” Cahier du Centre d’Études Chypriotes 16, 15-20.

Höckmann and Kreikenbom 2001. U. Höckmann and D. Kreikenbom, Naukratis: Die Beziehungen zu Ostgriechenland, Ägypten und Zypern in archaischer Zeit (Paderborn).  

 

Karageorghis 1977. V. Karageorghis, Two Cypriote Sanctuaries of the End of the Cypro-Archaic Period (Rome).

 

Karageorghis 1981. V. Karageorghis, "De l’adaptation et de la transformation de la mythologie grecque à Chypre durant les périodes archaïque et classique," in L. Kahil and C. Augé (eds.), Mythologie gréco-romaine, mythologies périphériques. Études d’iconographie (Colloques CNRS 593), 77-87. Paris.

 

Karageorghis 1988.  V. Karageorghis, “A Stone Statuette of a Sphinx and a Note on Small Limestone Thymiateria from Cyprus,” RDAC, 89-93.

 

Karageorghis 1998. V. Karageorghis, Greek Gods and Heroes in Ancient Cyprus. Athens.

 

Leclant and Clerc 1981.  J. Leclant and G. Clerc, “Ammon,” LIMC 1, 666-89.

Le Glay 1986.  M. Le Glay, “Baal-Hammon,” LIMC 3, 72-5.

Lipinski 1986.  E. Lipinski,  "Zeus Ammon et Baal-Hammon,"  in C. Bonnet, et al., eds. Religio Phoenicia. Studia Phoenicia 4 (Narmur, 1986), 307-22.

Lipinski 1995. E. Lipinski, Dieux et Déesses de l'Univers Phénicien et Punique (Studia Phoenicia XIV: Leuven), esp. <Baal Hamon> pp. 251-64 

Mylonas 1999. D. Mylonas, Archaische Kalkensteinplastik Zyperns (Diss. Mannheim).

Myres 1914.  J. L. Myres, Handbook of the Cesnola Collection of Antiquities from Cyprus, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York  (New York).

Myres 1945.  J. L. Myres, "A Sanctuary Site at Lefkoniko," Annual of the British School at Athens 41, 54-68.

Robinson 1927. E. S. G. Robinson, Catalogue of the Greek Coins of Cyrenaica (London), esp. ccxxxiii-ccxxxix for coins with images of Zeus Ammon; see also Pl XIII, 3-7 for standing ZA figures.

Sophocleous 1985a.  S. Sophocleous, Atlas des représentations chypro-archaïques des divinités (Göteborg), 162-171.

 

Sophocleous, 1985b. S. Sophocleous, "Baal-Hammon," Megali Kypriaki Enkyklopedia III, 111-3 (in Greek).

 

Sørensen 1978.  L. W Sørensen, “Early Archaic Limestone Statuettes in Cypriote Style: A Review of their Chronology and Place of Manufacture,” RDAC, 111-21.

Vandenabeele 2001. F. Vandenabeele, "Cypriote Terracottas Representing Gods," in P. M. Fischer (ed.), Contributions to the Archaeology and History of the Bronze and Iron Ages in the Eastern Mediterranean. Studies in Honor of Paul Åström (Osterreichesches Archaologisches Institut Sonderschriften Band 39), Vienna, 91-9. See p. 92 for Zeus Ammon.

Vermeule 1974.  C. C. Vermeule, “The Ram Cults of Cyprus: Pastoral to Paphian at Morphou,” RDAC, 150-5.

Xella 1991.  P. Xella, Baal Hammon (Rome).

 

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Bes

Adelman 1971. C. Adelman, ‘A Sculpture in Relief from Amathus,’ RDAC, 59-64.

Bisi 1980. A. M. Bisi, "Da Bes a Herakles," RSF 8, 19-42.

Caubet 1979.  A. Caubet, La Religion a Chypre dans l'Antiquite (Lyon), 28.

Counts and Toumazou 2006. D. Counts and M. Toumazou, "New Light on the Iconography of Bes in Archaic Cyprus " in A. Donohue and C. Mattusch (eds.), Common Ground: Archaeology, Art, Science, and Humanities - Proceedings of the XVI International Congress of Classical Archaeology ( Oxford ), 565-9.

Culican 1968.  W. Culican, "The Iconography of Some Phoenician Seals and Seal Impressions," Australian Journal of Biblical Archaeology 1, 93-8.

Destrooper-Georgiades 1999. ‘A Coin with a Bes-Like Head Found in Cyprus,’ NRCY (Numismatic Report of the Cyprus Numismatic Society) 28-30, 17-23. On a 5th c. BC (?) coin supposedly found near Paphos with a horned, bearded head near to Bes.

Fourrier 2005?. S. Fourrier, "Êtres hybrides du répertoire chypriote archaïque: les figures de Bés et d'Hathor," in I. Izquierdo and H. Le Meaux (eds.), Seres Híbridos: Apropiación de Motivos Míticos Mediterráneos (Madrid), 61-75.

Gawlikowski 1994. M. Gawlikowski, “Reshef,” in LIMC VII, 623-4. On the head of Bes placed on a pyramidal cippus dedicated to Reshef Shed now in the Louvre

Gubel 1987. E. Gubel, "«Syro-Cypriote» Cubical Stamps: The Phoenician Connection," in E. Lipinski, ed. Phoenicia and the East Mediterranean in the First Millennium BC (Leuven), 195ff  (see especially p. 196 and 207 for  seals with images of Bes) 

 

Hermary 1981.  A. Hermary, Amathonte II, Testimonia 2: La Sculpture (Paris), 27-31 and 74-83 ('Amathous Sarcophagus').

 

Hermary 1984. A. Hermary, "Deux ex-voto chypriotes reconstitués," Revue du Louvre 34.

 

Hermary 1986.  A. Hermary, "Bes (Cypri et in Phoenicia)," LIMC 3, 108-12.

Hermary 1989. A. Hermary, Les Antiquités de Chypre: Sculptures (Paris), 295.

Hermary 1995. A. Hermary “Une tête de Bès chypriote au musée de Cannes", Cahier du Centre d'Etudes chypriotes 23 (1995), 23-27.

Loulloupis 1979.  M. C. Loulloupis, “Evidence of Egyptian Cult in Cyprus,” in Acts of the First International Congress of Egyptology, Cairo 1976  (Munich), esp. 432-34.

Mylonas 1999. D. Mylonas, Archaische Kalkensteinplastik Zyperns (Diss. Mannheim).

Petit 2004. T. Petit, "Images de la royauté amathousienne: le sarcophage d'Amathonte," in Y. Perrin and T. Petit (eds.) Iconographie impériale, iconographie royale, iconographie des élites dans le monde gréco-romain (Saint-Étienne), 49-91; esp. 60-9.

Sophocleous 1985.  S. Sophocleous, Atlas des représentations chypro-archaïques des divinités (Göteborg),162-171.

Tinh 1986. T. T. Tinh, "Bes" LIMC 3 (note there is a separate entry for Bes in Cyprus and Phoenicia, see Hermary 1986 above).

Tzavellas-Bonnet 1985. C. Tzavellas-Bonnet, "Melqart, Bès, et l 'Héraclès Dactyle de Crète," in E. Gubel and E. Lipinksi, Phoenicia and its Neighbors. Studia Phoenicia 3 (Leuven), 231-40.

Westholm 1939. A. Westholm, ‘The Colossus from Amathus,’ in DRAGMA: In Honor of M. P. Nilsson (Lund). Dating the colossal Bes from Amathous in Istanbul to the Roman period.

Wilson 1975.  V. Wilson, “The Iconography of Bes with Particular Reference to the Cypriot Evidence,” Levant 7, 77-103.

 

Wright 2002. G. R. H. Wright, ‘A Token of Personal Religion Brought to Cyrene c. 525 BC,’ Libyan Studies 33, 21-8. On a scarab seal inscribed in Cypriote Syllabary found at Cyrene showing Bes as Master of Lions

 

 

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Pan

Boardman 1997.  J. Boardman, ‘Pan,’ LIMC 8, 923-41.

Brown 1977.  Brown, ‘The Divine Name ‘Pan’’ TAPA 107, 57-6.

Caubet 1976.  A. Caubet, “La Collection R. Hamilton Lang au Musée du Louvre: antiquités de Pyla,” RDAC, 168-77.

Caubet 1979.  A. Caubet, La Religion a Chypre dans l'Antiquite (Lyon), 32.

Cofer 2001. C. Cofer, “Relief-Statuettes of Pan from the Mesaoria Valley of Cyprus : Evidence from the Sanctuary of Athienou-Malloura.” M.A. thesis, Bryn Mawr College .

Counts 2008. D. Counts, " The Master of the Lions in Cyprus : Hybridity, Representation and the Culture within Cypriote Cultures" AJA 112, 3-27.

Flourentzos 1989.  P.  Flourentzos, “The Iconography of the God Pan in Cypriot Sculpture,” RDAC, 121-6.

Hermary 1989. A. Hermary, Les Antiquités de Chypre: Sculptures (Paris), 311.

Hermary 1994. "Opaon Melanthios." LIMC 7:54-55.

James et al. 1888.  M. R. James, et al. “Excavations in Cyprus, 1887-1888,” JHS 9, 171-4 (section is written by D. Hogarth). 

Karageorghis 1998.  V. Karageorghis, Greek Gods and Heroes in Ancient Cyprus (Athens), esp. 192-4 (where Pan is discussed with Opaon Melanthios and Apollo).

Laubscher 1985.  H. P. Laubscher, “Hellenistiche Herrscher und Pan,” AM 100, 333-53.  

Mylonas 1999. D. Mylonas, Archaische Kalkensteinplastik Zyperns (Diss. Mannheim).

Myres 1914.  J. L. Myres, Handbook of the Cesnola Collection of Antiquities from Cyprus, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York  (New York).

Senff 1993.  R. Senff, Das Apollonheiligtum von Idalion: Architektur und Statuenausstattung eines Zyprischen Heiligtums, SIMA  94 (Jonserd).  

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Aphrodite and the Great Goddess (inc. Hathor, Astarte)

Caubet 1973. A. Caubet, "Héraclès ou Hathor. Orfèvrerie chypriote," Revue du Louvre 23, 1-6.

Caubet 1979.  A. Caubet, La Religion a Chypre dans l'Antiquite (Lyon), esp. 28-30, 32.

Caubet and Pic 1982.  A. Caubet and M. Pic, “Un culte hathorique,” in Archéologie au Levant.  Recueil à la Mémorie de R. Saidah (Lyon), 237-49.

Erath-Koiner 2005. G. Erath-Koiner, "Aphrodite in Graz - Eine Mauerkronenträgerin aus Zypern im Landesmuseum Joanneum," Schild von Steier: Archäologische und numismatische Beiträge aus dem Landesmuseum Joanneum 18, 27-33.

Fourrier 2005?. S. Fourrier, "Êtres hybrides du répertoire chypriote archaïque: les figures de Bés et d'Hathor," in I. Izquierdo and H. Le Meaux (eds.), Seres Híbridos: Apropiación de Motivos Míticos Mediterráneos (Madrid), 61-75.

Hermary 1985.  A. Hermary, “Un nouveau chapiteau hathorique trouvé à Amathonte,” BCH 109, 657-708.

Hermary 1988.  A. Hermary, “Le culte d”Aphrodite à Amathonte,” RDAC, 101-9.

Hermary 1989. A. Hermary, Les Antiquités de Chypre: Sculptures (Paris), 396-8.

Hermary 1998.  A. Hermary, “Encore des chapiteaux hathoriques,” Cahier du Centre d’Études Chypriotes 28, 67-72.

J. Karageorghis 1977.  J. Karageorghis, La Grande Déesse de Chypre et son Culte à travers l”Iconographie, de l”Époque Néolithique au VIe s. av. J.-C. (Paris).  

Karageorghis 1998.  V. Karageorghis, Greek Gods and Heroes in Ancient Cyprus (Athens), esp. 120-131 and 198-218.

Karageorghis and Karageorghis 2002. V. Karageorghis and J. Karageorghis, "The Great Goddess of Cyprus or the Genesis of Aphrodite in Cyprus," in S. Parpala, et al. (eds), Sex and Gender in the Ancient Near East (Helsinki), 263-82/\.

Masson and Hermary 1986.  O. Masson and A. Hermary, “Le Chapiteau hathorique de Paphos (Bapho, 1865),” Cahier du Centre d’Études Chypriotes 5, 3-8.  

Mylonas 1999. D. Mylonas, Archaische Kalkensteinplastik Zyperns (Diss. Mannheim).

Myres 1914.  J. L. Myres, Handbook of the Cesnola Collection of Antiquities from Cyprus, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York  (New York).


Petit 2004. T. Petit, "Images de la royauté amathousienne: le sarcophage d'Amathonte," in Y. Perrin and T. Petit (eds.) Iconographie impériale, iconographie royale, iconographie des élites dans le monde gréco-romain (Saint-Étienne), 49-91; esp. 69ff.

Serwint 2002. N. Serwint, “Aphrodite and Her Near Eastern Sisters: Spheres of Influence,” in D. Bolger and N. Serwint (eds.) Engendering Aphrodite: Women and Society in Ancient Cyprus ( Boston ), 325–50.

Sophocleous 1985.  S. Sophocleous, Atlas des représentations chypro-archaïques des divinités (Göteborg), 85-141.

Tatton-Brown 1982.  V. Tatton-Brown, “Two Finds Allegedly from Rantidi,” RDAC, 174-182.

Ulbrich 2008. A. Ulbrich, Kypris : Heiligtuemer und Kulte weiblicher Gottheiten auf Zypern in der kyproarchaischen und kyproklassischen Epoche (Koenigszeit) (Ugarit-Verlag).

Yon and Caubet 1988.  M. Yon and A. Caubet, “Un culte populaire de la Grande Déesse à Lapithos,” RDAC, 1-16.

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Artemis (inc. connections to Great Goddess)

Bennet 1980. C. G. Bennett, The Cults of the Ancient Greek Cypriotes. Unpublished dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.

Caubet 1976.  A. Caubet, “La Collection R. Hamilton Lang au Musée du Louvre: antiquités de Pyla,” RDAC, 168-77.

Caubet 1979.  A. Caubet, La Religion a Chypre dans l'Antiquite (Lyon), esp. 32.

Counts and Toumazou 2003. D. B. Counts and M. K. Toumazou, "Artemis at Malloura," CCEC 33 (2003), 237-51.

Hermary 1989. A. Hermary, Les Antiquités de Chypre: Sculptures (Paris), 411.

Kahil 1984. L. Kahil, "Artemis" LIMC 2.1, esp. cat. nos. 406, 560-1, 639-40, and 650.

Karageorghis 1998.  V. Karageorghis, Greek Gods and Heroes in Ancient Cyprus (Athens), esp. 133-35 and 176-185.

Pouilloux 1986. J. Pouilloux, "Artémis Paralia à Kition," in V. Karageorghis, ed. Acts of the International Archaeological Symposium ‘Cyprus Between the Orient and the Occident’ (Nicosia, 1986), 411-22.

Senff 1993.  R. Senff, Das Apollonheiligtum von Idalion: Architektur und Statuenausstattung eines Zyprischen Heiligtums, SIMA  94 (Jonserd).  

Sophocleous 1985. S. Sophocleous, Atlas des représentations chypro-archaïques des divinities (Göteborg), 138-41.

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Temple Boys

Beer 1978.  C. Beer, ‘A ‘Temple Boy’ and a Head with a Cap from Cyprus,’ MedMusB 13, 41-4.

Beer 1985a.  C. Beer,  ‘Comparative Votive Religion: the Evidence of Children in Cyprus, Greece and Etruria,’ in T. Linders and G. Nordquisy, eds. Gifts to the Gods (Uppsala), 21-9.

Beer 1985b.  C. Beer,  ‘Cypriote ‘Temple Boys’: Some Problems,’ in Praktika, 385-90.

Beer 1989.  C. Beer, ‘Identification of Cypriot Votive Statues. A Preliminary Case Study,’ in E. G. Peltenburg, Early Society in Cyprus (Edinburgh), 140.

Beer 1993.  C. Beer, Temple-Boys: A Study of Cypriote Votive Sculpture Part 2. Functional Analysis (Stockholm).

Beer 1994.  C. Beer, Temple-Boys: A Study of Cypriote Votive Sculpture Part 1. Catalogue, SIMA 113 (Göteborg).

Hadziseliou-Price 1969.  T. Hadzisteliou-Price, “The Type of the Crouching Child and the “Temple Boys”,” BSA 64, 59-111.  

Hermary 1984. A. Hermary, "Deux ex-voto chypriotes reconstitués," Revue du Louvre 34.

Hermary 1989. A. Hermary, Les Antiquités de Chypre: Sculptures (Paris), 69.

Laffineur 1994.  R. Laffineur, “À propos des “Temple Boys”,” in R. Laffineur and F. Vandenabeele, eds. Cypriote Stone Sculpture (Brussels-Liege, 1994), 141-8.

Merriam 1893.  A. C. Merriam, “A Series of Cypriote Heads in the Metropolitan Museum,” AJA 8, 184-9.

Sjöqvist 1955.  E. Sjöqvist, “A Cypriote Temple Attendant,” AJA 59, 45-7.

Westholm 1955.  A. Westholm, “The Cypriote “Temple Boys”, “ OpAth 2, 75-7.

 

Myres 1914.  J. L. Myres, Handbook of the Cesnola Collection of Antiquities from Cyprus, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York  (New York).

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Kourotrophoi

Beer 1997.  C. Beer, ‘The Kourotrophos Temenos at Idalion (Cyprus). New Evidence from the American Expedition 1971-1980,’ in CCEC 27, 47-57.

Hermary 1989. A. Hermary, Les Antiquités de Chypre: Sculptures (Paris), 419.

Price 1978.  T. H. Price, Kourotrophos: Cults and Representations of the Greek Nursing Deities (Leiden).

Vandenabeele 1988.  F. Vandenabeele, “Kourotrophoi in the Cypriote Terracotta Production from the Early Bronze Age to the Late Archaic Period,” RDAC, 25-34.

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Miscellaneous

Boardman 1978.  J. Boardman, Greek Sculpture. The Archaic Period (London), 25 (with reference to the origins of stone perirrhanteria found in mainland Greece).

Karageorghis 1971.  V. Karageorghis, “Notes on Some Cypriote Priests Wearing Bull-Masks,” HThR 64, 261-70.

Karageorghis 1988.  V. Karageorghis, “A Stone Statuette of a Sphinx and a Note on Small Limestone Thymiateria from Cyprus,” RDAC, 89-93.

Karageorghis 1998.  V. Karageorghis, Greek Gods and Heroes in Ancient Cyprus (Athens), good source for illustration and commentary on minor Greek gods and heroes..

Nicolaou 1965.  K. Nicolaou, “Zeus Keraunios of Kition,” OpAth 5, 37-45.

 

Yon 1982. M. Yon, “Le Maître de l”eau à Kition,” in Archéologie au Levant.  Recueil à la Mémorie de R. Saidah (Lyon), 251-63.

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