Dr. Hynan         SYLLABUS, SYSTEMS OF PSYCHOTHERAPY,Fall, 2002

Office:Garland 202C ---Office Hours:  T   2:00-3:00 and W 1:30-2:30

Phone:229-4746 or 229-5099; E-MAIL:hynan@uwm.edu   home page:www.uwm.edu/~hynan

 

              Systems of Psychotherapy meets Mon., 1:30- 4:10 in Per 184.

 

This course would be better titled "The Science and the Art of Psychotherapy."  The first part of the semester will be devoted to general issues in

psychotherapy. Topics such as the outcome problem, spontaneous recovery, patient variables, therapist variables, etc., will be covered in a lecture format. Subsequently, a variety of systems of psychotherapy will be studied in a seminar-like atmosphere. Each student will be expected to have some familiarity with each of the therapy schools and to be an expert in one system (to be assigned early in the semester). Theoretical backgrounds, assumptions, techniques, etc., will be compared and contrasted in general discussion and with case study examples.  Course requirements are two exams (midterm and final) and  class presentations of the chosen area of therapeutic expertise. Students are expected to distribute a mimeographed outline of their presentation. Grades will be based on the performance on the two essay exams, which will be weighted

equally.  Exam questions will be based on the lectures, the required readings, and student presentations. The midterm exam will be Oct 28 or Nov. 5; the final exam will be from 7:30 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. on Thurs., Dec. 19.

 

Information of Psychology Department policies on participation by students with

disabilities, accommodation for religious observances, academic conduct, complaint procedures, grade appeal procedures, and other standing policies (e.g., sexual harassment, incompletes) is available in the main office of Psychology in Garland 222.

 

Required texts are:

  Garfield, S., & Bergin, A.  (1994).  Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change. (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley.

  Corsini, R. & Wedding, D (Eds.).  (2000). Current Psychotherapies (6th ed.) Itaska, IL: Peacock.

 

The readings marked by (**) are required; the readings marked by (*) are recommended.

What is psychotherapy?

A.    Definitions

**Garfield, S., & Bergin, A.  (1994).  Introduction and historical overview.  In    Handbook, Chapter 1.

**Orlinski, D., Grawe, K., &  Parks, B.K. (1994).  Process and outcome in    psychotherapy.  In Handbook (272-281).

**Weinberger, J. (1995). Common factors aren't so common: The common factors dilemma. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 2, 45-69.

B. Is what you (the therapist) see and remember the “truth”?

**Schachter, D. L. (1999). The seven sins of memory: Insights from psychology and cognitive neuroscience. American Psychologist, 54, 182-203.

*Hill, C. E., Gelso, C. J., & Mohr, J. J. (2000). Client concealment and self-presentation in therapy: Comment on Kelly (2000). Psychological Bulletin, 126, 495-500.

C. Process and outcome measures used in the clinic.

**Lambert, M. J. & Okiiski, J. (1997). The therapists contribution to therapeutic outcome. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 4, 66-75.

  Martin, D. J., Garske, J. P., & Davis, M. Katherine. (2000). Relation of the therapuetic alliance with outcome and other variables: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68,438-450.

**Lueger, R.J., Howard, K.I., Maretinovich, Z., Lutz, W., Anderson, E.E., & Grissom, G. Assessing treatment progress of individual patients using expected treatment response models. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 150-158.

**Lambert, M.J., Hansen,N.B., & Finch, A.E. (2001). Patient-focused research: Using patient outcome data to enhance treatment effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 159-172.

 

II.            Outcome

A. The outcome problem. Does psychotherapy work? Is that a ridiculous     question?

 Eysenck, H.  (1952).  The effects of psychotherapy: An evaluation.  Journal of

    Consulting Psychology, 16, 319-324.

 Luborski, L.  (1954).  A note on Eysenck's article, "The effects of psychotherapy: An evaluation."   British Journal of Psychology, 45, 129-131.

  Rosenzweig, S.  (1954).  A transvaluation of psychotherapy: A reply to Hans

Eysenck.  Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 49, 298-304.

  Eysenck, H.  (1955).  The effects of psychotherapy: A reply. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 50, 147-148.

  Strupp, H.  (1963).  The outcome problem in psychotherapy revisited.  Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1, 1-13.

  Eysenck, H.  (1964).  The outcome problem in psychotherapy: A reply.

Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1, 97-100.

  Bergin, A. (1963).  The effects of psychotherapy: Negative results revisited.

Journal of Counseling Psychology, 10, 244-250.

  Astin, A.  (1961).  The functional autonomy of psychotherapy.  American

Psychologist, 16, 75-78.

 Kiesler, D.  (1966).  Some myths of psychotherapy research and the search for                  

paradigm.  Psychological Bulletin, 65, 110-136.

  Frank, J. (1963). Does psychotherapy work?  International Journal of Psychiatry, 3, 153-155.

  Meltzoff, J.  (1969).  Effectiveness of psychotherapy is amply demonstrated.

International Journal of Psychology, 7, 149-152.

  Bergin, A. & Suinn, R.  (1975).  Individual psychotherapy and behavior therapy.  In M. Rosenzweig & L. Porter (Eds.), Annual Review of Psychology, 26.  Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews, Inc.

  Luborski, L., Singer, B., & Luborski, L.  (1976).  Comparative studies of    psychotherapies:  Is it true that "everybody has won and all must have prizes?"    In R. Spitzer & D. Klein (Eds.),  Evaluation of psychotherapies.  Baltimore:

Johns Hopkins.

  Smith, N. & Glass, G.  (1977).  Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies. American Psychologist, 32, 752-760.

  Gallo, P.  (1978).  Meta-analysis -- a mixed meta-phor?  American Psychologist, 33, 515-517.

    Rimland, B.  (1979).  Death knell for psychotherapy?  American Psychologist, 34, 192.

  Frank, J.  (1979).  The present status of outcome studies.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 310-316.

  Erwin, E.  (1980). Psychoanalytic therapy: The Eysenck argument.  American

Psychologist, 35, 435-443.

    Miller, R., & Berman, J.  (1983).  The efficacy of cognitive behavior therapies: A quantitative review of the research evidence.  Psychological Bulletin, 94, 39-53.

    Shapiro, D., & Shapiro, D.  (1982).  Meta-analysis of comparative therapy outcome studies: A replication and refinement.  Psychological Bulletin, 92, 581-609.

  Landman, J., & Dawes, R.  (1982).  Psychotherapy outcome:  Smith & Glass

conclusions stand up under scrutiny. American Psychologist, 37, 504-516.

 *Glass, G., & Kliegl, R.  (1983).  An apology for research integration in the study of psychotherapy.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 28-41.

  Shapiro, D., & Shapiro, D.  (1983).  Comparative therapy outcome research:

Methodological implications of meta-analysis.  Journal of Consulting and  Clinical Psychology, 51, 42-53.

  Steinbrueck, S., Maxwell, S., & Howard, G.  (1983).  A meta-analysis of

psychotherapy and drug therapy in the treatment of unipolar depression with

adults.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 856-863.

  Andrews, G., & Harvey, R.  (1981).  Does psychotherapy benefit neurotic patients? Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 1203-1208.

  Berman, J.S., Miller, P.C., & Massman, P.J.  (1985).  Cognitive therapy versus

systematic desensitization:  Is one treatment superior?  Psychological Bulletin,

97, 451-461.

  Casey, R. & Berman, J. (1985).  The outcome of psychotherapy with children.

Psychological Bulletin, 98, 388-400.

**Lambert, M. & Bergin, A. (1994). The effectiveness of psychotherapy.

In Handbook (Chapter 5).

  Stiles, W., Shapiro, D., & Elliott, R. (1986).  Are all psychotherapies equivalent? American Psychologist, 41, 165-180.

  Klerman, G., Weissman, M.W., Markowitz, J.C., Glick, I., Wilner, P.J., Mason,

B., & Shear, M.K. (1994) Medication and Psychotherapy. In Handbook (Chapter 18).

**Thase, M. T. & Kupfer, D. J. (1996). Recent developments in the pharmacotherapy of mood disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 646-659.

**Ludiard, R. B., Brawn-Mintzer, O., & Ballenger, J. C. (1996). Recent developments in the pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64,  660-668.

  Weisz, J., Weiss, B., Alicke, M., & Klotz, M.  (1987).  Effectiveness of

psychotherapy with children and adolescents:  A meta-analysis for clinicians.

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 542-549.

  Shoham-Salomon, V., & Rosenthal, R.  (1987).  Paradoxical interventions:  A

meta-analysis.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 22-28.

 *Robinson, L.A., Berman, J.S., & Neimeyer, R.A. (1990). Psychotherapy for treatment of depression: A comprehensive review of controlled outcome research.

Psychological Bulletin, 108, 30-49.

  Lyons, L.C. & Woods, P.J. (1991).  The efficacy of rational-emotive therapy:  A quantative review of the outcome research.  Clinical Psychology Review, 11,

357-369.

  Beutler, L.E. (1991).  Have all won and must all have prizes?  Revisiting Luborski et al.'s verdict.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 226-232.

  Kazdin, A.E. (1993). Psychotherapy for children and adolescents: Current progress and future research directions. American Psychologist, 48, 644-657.

 *Jacobson, N.S. & Addis, M.E. (1993). Research on couples and couple therapy: What do we know? Where are we going? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 85-93.

  Weisz, J.R., Weiss, B., Han, S.S., Granger, D. A., & Morton, T. (1995) Effects of psychotherapy with children and adolescents revisited: A meta-analytic treatment outcome study. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 450-468.

Seligman, M.E.P. (1995). The effectiveness of psychotherapy: The Consumer Reports Study. American Psychologist, 50, 965-974.

**Teasdale, J.D., Scott, J., Moore, R.G., Hayhurst, H., Pope, M., & Paykel, E.S. (2001). How does cognitive therapy prevent relapse in residual depression? Evidence from a controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 347-357.

*Westen, D. & Morrison, K. (2001). A multidimensional meta-analysis of treatments for depression, panic, and generalized anxiety disorder: An empirical examination of the status of empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 875-899.

**Lambert, M. J. (2001). The status of empirically supported therapies: Comment on Westen and Morrison’s (2001) multidimensional meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 910-913.

Specific and Non-specific Effects.

  Frank, J.  (1973).  Persuasion and healing: A comparative study of psychotherapy (2nd ed.).  Baltimore, MD:  Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Kazdin, A.  (1979).  Nonspecific treatment factors in psychotherapy outcome

research.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 846-851.

  Bootzin, R., & Lick, J.  (1979).  Expectancies in therapy research:  Interpretive artifact or mediating?  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 837-845.

  Andraski, T., & Holroyd, K.  (1980).  A test of specific and nonspecific effect on the biofeedback treatment of tension headache.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 575-586.

  Prioleau, L., Murdoch, M., & Brody, N.  (1983).  An analysis of psychotherapy vs. placebo studies.  Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 6, 275-310.

  Critelli, J., & Neumann, K.  (1984).  The placebo:  Conceptual analysis of a

construct in transition.  American Psychologist, 39, 32-39.

  Parloff, M.  (1986).  Placebo controls in psychotherapy research:  A sine qua non or a placebo for research problems?  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 79-87.

  Wilkins, W.  (1986).  Placebo problems in psychotherapy research: Social-psychological alternatives to chemotherapy concepts.  American Psychologist, 41, 551-556.

  Barker, S.L., Funk, S.C., & Houston, B.K. (1988).  Psychological treatment versus nonspecific factors:  A meta-analysis of conditions that engender comparable expectations for improvement.  Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 579-594.

  Bowers, T.G., & Clum, G.A. (1988).  Relative contribution of specific and

nonspecific treatment effects:  Meta-analysis of placebo-controlled behavior

therapy research.  Psychological Bulletin, 103, 315-323.

  Horvath, P. (1988).  Placebos and common factors in two decades of psychotherapy research.  Psychological Bulletin, 109, 214-225.

  Stiles, W.B. & Shapiro, D.A. (1989). Abuse of the drug metaphor in psychotherapy process-outcome research. Clinical Psychology Review, 9, 521-543.

  Brody, N. (1990). Behavior therapy versus placebo: Comment on Bower and Clumb's meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 106-109.

  Clumb, G.A. & Bowers, T.G. (1990). Behavior therapy better than placebo treatments: Fact or artifact? Psychological Bulletin, 107, 110-113.

  Ilardi, S.S. & Craighead, W. E. (1994). The role of nonspecific factors in

cognitive-behavior therapy for depression. Clinical Psychology: Science and

Practice, 1, 138-156.

Krupnick, J.L., Sotsky, S.M., Simmens, S., Moyer, J., Elkin, I., Watkins, J., &

Pilkonis, P.A. (1996). The role of the therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy and

pharmacotherapy outcome: Findings in the NIMH treatment of depression    collaborative research program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 532-539.

**Stevens, S., Hynan, M. T. & Allen, M. (2000) A meta-analysis of common factor and specific treatment effects across the outcome domains of the phase model of psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice.

**Barber, J.P., Connolly, M.B., Crits-Cristoph, P., Gladis, L., & Siqueland, L. (2000). Alliance predicts patients’ outcome beyond in-treatment change in symptoms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 1027-1032.

*Luborski, L., Rosenthal, R. Diguer, L., Andrusyna, T., Berman, J.S., Levitt, J., Seligman, D.A., & Krause, E.D. (2002). The Dodo bird verdict is alive and well-mostly. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 2-12.

**Messer, S.B., & Wampold, B.E. (2002) Let’s face facts: Common factors are more potent than specific therapy ingredients. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 21-25.

C. Major Outcome Studies.

  Paul, G.  (1966).  Insight vs. desensitization in psychotherapy: An experiment in anxiety reduction.  Stanford, CA:  University Press.

  Diloreto, A.  (1971).  Comparative psychotherapy:  An experimental analysis.

Chicago:  Aldine-Atherton.

  Staples, T., Sloane, R., Whipple, K., Cristol, A., & Yorkstop, N.  (1976).  Process and outcome in psychotherapy and behavior therapy.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 340-350.

  Paul, G., & Lentz, R.  (1978).  Psychosocial treatment of chronic mental patients. Cambridge, MA:  Harvard University Press.

  Strupp, H., & Hadley, S.  (1979).  Specific vs. nonspecific factors in

psychotherapy.  Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 1125-1136.

 *Lovaas, O.  (1987).  Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3-9.

  Borkovec, T.D., Mathews, A.M., Chambers, A., Ebrahimi, S. Lytle, R., & Nelson, R. (1987).  The effects of relaxation training with cognitive or nondirective therapy and the role of relaxation-induced anxiety in the treatment of generalized anxiety.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 883-888.

 *Klosko, J.S., Barlow, D.H., Tassinari, R., & Cerny, J. A. (1990). A comparison of Alprazolam and behavior therapy in treatment of panic disorder. Journal of

Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 77-84.

  Elkin, I., Shea, M.T., Watkins, J.T., Imber, S.D., Sotsky, S.M., Collins, J.F., Glass, D.R., Pilkonis, P.A., Leber, W.R., Docherty, J. P., Riester, S.J., & Parloff, M. b. (1989). NIMH treatment of depression collaborative research

program: General effectiveness of treatments. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 971-983.

  Imber, S.D., Pilkonis, P.A., Stosky, S.M., Elkin, I., Watkins, J. T., Collins, J.F., Shea, M.T., Leber, W.R., & Glass, D.R. (1990). Mood specific effects among three treatments for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 352-359.

**Elkin, I. (1994). The NIMH treatment of depression collaborative research program. Where we began and where we are. In Handbook (Chapter 4)

  Ogles, B.M., Lambert, M.J., & Sawyer, J.D. (1995). Clinical significance of the NIMH treatment of depression collaborative research program. Journal of

Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 321-326.

  Jacobson, N.S. & Hollon, S.D. (1996). Cognitive behavior therapy versus

pharmacotherapy: Now that the jury's returned its verdict, it's time to present

the rest of the evidence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64,

74-80.

*Klein, D.F. (1996). Preventing hung juries about therapy studies. Journal of

Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 81-87.

 *Butler, G., Fennell, M., Robson, P., & Gelder, M. (1991). Comparison of behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 167-175.

   Strupp, H.H. (1993). The Vanderbuilt psychotherapy studies: Synopsis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 431-433.

 *Borkovec, T.D. & Costello, E. (1993). Efficacy of applied relaxation and cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorders.     

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 611-619.

  Shapiro, D., Rees, A., Barkham, M., Hardy, G., Reynolds, S., & Startup, M. (1995). Effects of treatment duration and severity of depression on the maintenance of gains after cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,63, 378-387.

*Jacobson, N. S., Dobson, K. S., Truax. P. A., Addis, M. E., Doerner, K., Gollan, J.K., Gortner, E., & Prinz, S. E. (1996). A component analysis of

cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64,  295-304.

  Abramowitz, J. S. (1997). Effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological

treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A quantitative review. Journal of

Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 44-52.

*Barlow, D. H., Gorman, J. M., Shear, M. K., & Woods, S. W. (2000). Cognitive-behavioral, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder: A randomized control trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 283, 2529-2536.

*Borkovec, T.D., Mewman, M.G., Pincus, A.L., & Lytle, R. (2002). A component analysis of cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder and the role of interpersonal problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 288-298.

 

D. Spontaneous Recovery and Deterioration.

   Baron, T., & Leary, T.  (1955).  Changes in psychoneurotic patients with and

without psychotherapy.  Journal of Counseling Psychology, 19, 239-245.

   Cartwright, O.  (1955).  Effectiveness of Psychotherapy:  A critique of the

spontaneous remission argument.  Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2, 290-295.

  Bergin, A.  (1966).  Some implications of psychotherapy research for therapeutic practice.  Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 71, 235-246.

  Strupp, H., Hadley, S., & Somes-Schwartz, B.  (1977).  Psychotherapy for better or worse:  An analysis of the problem of negative effects.  New York:  Jason Aronson.

  Braucht, G.  (1970).  The deterioration effect:  A reply to Bergin.  Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 75, 300-302.

  May, P.  (1971).  For better or for worse?  Psychotherapy and variance change?  A critical review of the literature.  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders,  152, 185-192.

  Subotnik, L.  (1972).  Spontaneous remission:  Fact or artifact?  Psychological Bulletin, 77, 32-48.

  Malan, D.  (1976).  The outcome problem in psychotherapy research:  A historical review.  Archives of General Psychiatry, 29, 719-729.

  Frank, J.  (1973).  Persuasion and healing.  Baltimore:  Johns Hopkins.

  Lambert, M. (1976).  Spontaneous remission in adult neurotic disorder.

Psychological Bulletin, 83, 107-119.

**Tracey, T.  (1987).  Interactional correlates of premature termination.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 784-788.

 *Mohr, D. (1995). Negative outcome in psychotherapy: A critical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and practive, 2,1-27.

**Binder, J. L. & Strupp, H. H. (1997). "Negative process": A recurrently discovered and underestimated facet of therapeutic process and outcome in the individual psychotherapy of adults. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 4, 121-139.

 

E. Outcome Criteria and Assessment of Improvement.

  Garfield, S., Prager, R., & Bergin, A.  (1971).  Evaluation of outcome in

psychotherapy.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 37, 307-313.

  Fiske, D.  (1971).  The shaky evidence is slowly put together.  Journal of

Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 37, 314-315.

  Luborski, L.  (1971).  Perennial mystery of poor agreement among criteria for

psychotherapy outcome.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 37,

320-322.

  Garfield, S., Prager, R., & Bergin, A.  (1971).  Evaluating outcome in

psychotherapy:  A hardy perennial.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 37, 316-319.

  Mintz, J. (1972).  What is "success" in psychotherapy?  Journal of Abnormal

Psychology, 10-19.

  Mintz, J., Luborski, L., & Christoph, P.  (1979).  Measure of the outcome of

psychotherapy:  Findings of the Penn Psychotherapy Project.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 319-334.

 *Sorenson, R.L., Gorsuch, R.L., & Mintz, J.  (1985).  Moving targets: Patients'

changing complaints during psychotherapy.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical

Psychology, 53, 49-54.

 Jacobsen, N.S., & Truax, P. (1991). Clinical significance: A statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 12-19.

  Lambert, M.J. & Hill, C.E. (1994). Assessing psychotherapy outcome and process. In Handbook (Chapter 3, pp. 72-89).

 

F.  Design Problems in Outcome Research.

  Paul, G.  (1967).  Strategy of outcome research in psychotherapy.  Journal of

    Consulting Psychology, 31, 109-118.

  Paul, G.  (1969).  Behavior modification research.  In C. Franks, Behavior therapy: Appraisal and status.  New York: McGraw-Hill.

  Hollon, S., & DeRubeis, R.  (1981).  Placebo-psychotherapy combinations:

Inappropriate representations of psychotherapy in drug-psychotherapy comparative

trials.  Psychological Bulletin, 90, 467-477.

  Kazdin, A.  (1982).  Symptom substitution:  Generalization and response covariation: Implications for psychotherapy outcome.  Psychological Bulletin, 91, 349-365.

  Nicholson, R., & Berman, J.  (1983).  Is follow-up necessary in evaluating

psychotherapy?  Psychological Bulletin, 93, 261-278.

  Kazdin, A.E.  (1986).  Research designs and methodology.  In  Handbook (Chapter 2).

  Kazdin, A.E., & Bass, D. (1989). Power to detect differences between alternative treatments in comparative psychotherapy outcome research. Journal of Consultant and Clinical Psychology, 57,138-147.

 

III. Therapist Variables

  Whitehorn, J. & Betz, B.  (1954).  A study of psychotherapeutic relationships

between physicians and schizophrenic patients.  American Journal of Psychiatry, 3, 321-331.

  McNair, D., Callahan, D., & Lorr, M.  (1962).  Therapist "type" and patient responseto psychotherapy.  Journal of Consulting Psychology, 26, 425-429.

  Chartier, R.  (1967).  A-B variable in psychotherapy:  Real or imagined?

Psychological Bulletin, 75, 22-33.

  Lambert, M., Dejulio, S., & Stein, D.  (1978).  Therapist inter personal skill:Process, outcome, methodological consideration and recommendations for future research.  Psychological Bulletin, 85, 467-489.

  Luborski, L., Mintz, J., & Christoph, P.  (1979).  Are psychotherapeutic changes predictable:  Comparison of a Chicago counseling center project with a Penn psychotherapy project.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47,

469-473.

**Jones, E., & Zoppel, C.  (1982).  Impact of client and therapist gender on

psychotherapy process and outcome.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 259-272.

  Hattie, J., Sharpley, C., & Rogers, H.  (1984).  Comparative effectiveness of

professional and paraprofessional helpers.  Psychological Bulletin, 95, 534-541.

  Berman, J. & Norton, N.  (1985).  Does professional training make a therapist more effective?  Psychological Bulletin, 98, 401-407

**Beutler, L.E., Machado, P.P.P., & Neufeldt, S.A. (1994).  Therapist variables.

In Handbook (Chapter 7).

  O'Malley, S.S., Foley, S.H. Rounsaville, B.J., Watkins, J.T., Satsky, S.M., Imber, S.D., & Elhin, I. (1988).  Therapist competence and patient outcome in

interpersonal psychotherapy of depression.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical

Psychology, 56, 496-501.

  Lambert, M.J. (1989). The individual therapist's contribution to psychotherapy

process and outcome. Clinical Psychology Review, 9, 469-485.

  Lafferty, P., Beutler, L.E., & Crago, M. (1989) Differences between more and less effective psychotherapists: A study of select therapist variables. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 76-80.

  Crits-Christoph, P., & Mintz, J. (1991).  Implications of Therapists Effects for thegn and analysis of comparative studies of psychotherapies.  Journal of

Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 20-26.

   Burns, D.D. & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1992). Therapeutic empathy and recovery from depression in cognitive-behavioral therapy: A structural equation model. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 441-449.

   Christensen, A. & Jacobsen, N. (1994). Who (or what) can do psychotherapy: The status and challenge of nonprofessional therapies. Psychological Science, 5,

8-14.

 **Strupp, H. H. & Anderson, T. (1997). On the limitation of therapy manuals. Clinical psychology: Science and Practice, 4, 76-82.

*Huppert, J.D. Bufka, L.F., Barlow, D.H., Gorman, J.M., Shear, M.K., & Woods, S.W. (2001). Therapists, therapist variables, and cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in a multicenter trial for panic disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 747-755.

*Barrett, M.S. & Berman, J.S. (2001). Is psychotherapy more effective when therapists disclose information about themselves? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 597-603.

 

IV. Patient Variables

**Garfield, S.  Research on client variables in psychotherapy.  In Handbook (Chapter 6).

  Auerbach, A., Luborski, L., & Johnson, M.  (1972).  Clinicians' predictions of    outcome of psychotherapy:  A trial of a prognostic index.  American Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 830-835.

  Prager, R., & Garfield, S.  (1979).  Client initial disturbance and outcome in   psychotherapy.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 38, 112-117.

  Miller, J., & Gross, S.  (1973).  Curvilinear trends in outcome research.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 41, 242-244.

  Luborski, L., Chandler, N., Auerbach, A., Cohen, J., & Bachrach, H. (1971).  Factors influencing outcome of psychotherapy:  A review of quantitative research. Psychological Bulletin, 75, 146-185.

  Baekaland, T., & Lundwall, L.  (1975).  Dropping out of treatment: A critical

review.  Psychological Bulletin, 82, 738-783.

  Garland, S.  (1977).  Further comments on "Dropping out of treatment."  Reply to Baekland & Lundwall.  Psychological Bulletin, 84, 306-308.

  Sloane, R., Staples, T., Cristol, A., Yorkson, N., & Whipple, K.  (1976).  Patient characteristics and outcome in psychotherapy and behavior therapy.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 330-339.

  Gomez-Schwartz, B.  (1979).  Effective ingredients in psychotherapy:  Prediction of outcome from process variables.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 1023-1035.

  Beutler, L.  (1979).  Toward specific psychological therapies for specific

conditions.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 882-897.

  Luborski, L., Mintz, J., Auerbach, A., Christopher, P., Bachrach, H., Todd, T., Johnson, M., Cohen, M., & O'Brien, P.  (1980).  Predicting the outcome of

psychotherapy.  Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 471-481.

  Steinmetz, J., Lewinsohn, P., & Antonuccio, D.  (1983).  Prediction of individual outcome in a group intervention for depression.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 331-337.

**American Psychological Association.  (1978).  Guidelines for psychotherapy with women.  American Psychologist, 33, 1122-1123.

  Hare-Mustin, R.  (1983).  An appraisal of the relationship between women and

psychotherapy.  American Psychologist, 38, 593-599.

  Henry, W., Schacht, T. & Strupp, H.  (1976).  Structural analysis of social

behavior:  Application to a study of interpersonal process in differential

psychotherapeutic outcome.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54,

27-31.

**Orlinski, D. E., Grawe, K., & Parks, B.K. (1994).  Process and outcome in

psychotherapy-noch einmal.  In Handbook (Chapter 8).

  Dance, K.A., & Neufeld, R.W.J. (1988).  Aptitude treatment interaction research in the clinical setting:  A review of attempts to dispel the "patient uniformity" myth.  Psychological Bulletin, 104, 192-213.

  Talley, P.F., Strupp, H.H., & Morey, L.C. (1990). Matchmaking in psychotherapy: Patient-therapist dimensions and their impact on outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 182-188.

  Garfield, S.L. (1990).  Issues and methods in psychotherapy process research.

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 273-280.

  Mohr, D.C, Beutler, L.E., Engle, D., Shoham-Salomon, V., Bergan, J., Kaszniak, A.W., & Yost, E.B. (1990).  Identification of Patients at risk for nonresponse and negative outcome in psychotherapy.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 622-628.

  Smith, B. & Lechrest, L. (1991).  Treatment of aptitude X treatment interations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 233-244.

  Beutler, L. Engle, D., Morh, D., Daldrup, R. Bergan, J., Meredity, K., & Merry, W. (1991). Predictors of differential response to cognitive, experiential, and self-directed psychotherapeutic procedures. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 333-340.

  Hardy, G. E., Stiles, W. B., Barkham, M., & Startup, M. (1998). Therapist

responsiveness to client interpersonal styles during time-limited treatments for

depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 304-312.

  Wiser, S. & Goldfried, M. R. (1998). Therapist interventions and client emotional experiencing in expert psychodynamic-interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 634-640.

 

V. General

  Ford, D., & Urban, H.  (1963).  Systems of psychotherapy:  A comparative study.  New York:  Wiley.

  Goldstein, A., Heller, K., & Sechrest, L.  (1966).  Psychotherapy and the psychology of behavior change.  New York:  Wiley.

  Bergin, A., & Strupp, H.  (1970).  New directions in psychotherapy research.  Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 75, 13-26.

  Matarazzo, J.  (1971).  The process of psychotherapy is art and not science.  In  A.R.  Mahrer (Ed.), Creative development in psychotherapy.  Cleveland:  Western Reserve.

  Hynan, M.  (1981).  On the advantages of assuming that the techniques of

psychotherapy are ineffective.  Psychotherapy:  Theory, Research, and Practice,

18, 11-13.

  Garfield, S.  (1981).  Psychotherapy:  A 40 year appraisal.  American Psychologist, 36, 174-183.

  Kiesler, C.  (1982).  Mental hospitals and alternative care.  American Psychologist, 37, 349-360.

  Cowen, E.  (1982).  Help is where you find it.  American Psychologist, 37, 385-395.

 Shawver, L.  (1983).  On the hazards of assuming that the techniques of

psychotherapy are ineffective:  A reply to Hynan.  Psychotherapy:  Theory,

Research, and Practice, 20, 254-256.

  Garfield, S., Klein, D., & Robkin, J.  (1984).  Chapters 18 & 19 plus commentary on "The bottom line."  Integrating psychotherapy research findings--how good is the evidence for efficacy and specificity?  In J.B. Williams & R.L. Spitzer (Eds.), Psychotherapy research:  Where are we and where should we go?  New York: Guilford Press, 295-331.

  Roberts, H.  (1985).  Biofeedback:  Research, training, and clinical roles.

American Psychologist, 40, 938-941.

  Messer, S.  (1986).  Behavioral and psychoanalytic perspectives at therapeutic

choice points.  American Psychologist, 41, 1261-1272.

  Strupp, H.H. (1989). Psychotherapy: Can the practitioner learn from the researcher? American Psychologist, 44, 714-724.

  Lazarus, A.A. (1990). If this be research... American Psychologist, 45, 670-671.

  Strupp, H.H. (1990). Rejoinder to Arnold Lazarus. American Psychologist 45,671-672.

  Heinicke, C.M. (1990).  Toward generic principles of treating parents and children. Integrating psychotherapy with the school and child and early family intervention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 713-719.

  Bergin, A.E. & Garfield, S.L. (1994). Overview, trends, and future issues. In

Handbook (Chapter 20).

**Howard, K.I., Lueger, R.J., Maling, M.S., & Martinovich, Z. (1993). A phase model of psychotherapy outcome: Causal mediation of change. Journal of Consulting andClinical Psychology, 61, 678-685.

 *Kopta, S., Howard, K., Lowry, J. & Beutler, L. (1994). Patterns of symptomatic

recovery in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62,

1009-1016.

  Schulberg, H. & Rush, A. (1994). Clinical practice guidelines for managing major depression in primary care practice: Implications for psychologists. American Psychologist,49, 34-41.

  Munox, R. Hollon, S., McGrath, E., Rehm, L. & VandenBos, G. (1994). On the AHCRP Depression in primary care guidelines. American Psychologist,49, 42-61.

**Bowers, K.S. & Farvolden, P. (1996). Revisiting a century-old Freudian slip-From suggestion disavowed to the truth repressed. Psychological Bulletin, 119,

355-380.

**Bowers, K.S. & Farvolden, P. (1996). The search for the Canonical Experience:

Reply to Pennebaker and Memon (1996). Psychological Bulletin, 119, 386-389.

**Meehl, P. E. (1997). Credentialed persons, credentialed knowledge. Clinical

    Psychology: Science and Practice, 4, 91-98.

  Wampold, B.E., Mondin, G. W., Moody, M., Stich, F., Benson, K., & Ahn, H. (1997). A meta-analysis of outcome studies comparing bona fide psychotherapies:

Empirically, "All must have prizes.". Psychological Bulletin, 122, 203-215.

*DeRubeis, R. J. & Crits-Cristoph, P. (1998). Empirically supported individual and group psychological treatments for adult mental disorders. Journal of

Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 37-52.

**Smyth, J. M. (1998). Written emotional expression: Effect sizes, outcome types, and and moderator variables. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 174-184.

 

VI. Values, Ethics, and Culture in Psychotherapy

  Bergin, A. (1991).  Values and religious issues in psychotherapy and mental health. American Psychologist, 46, 394-403.

  Bergin, A.  (1980).  Psychotherapy and religious value.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 95-105.

  Ellis, A.  (1980).  Psychotherapy and religious value.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 635-639.

  Walls, G.  (1980).  Values and psychotherapy:  A comment on "Psychotherapy and

religious values."   Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 640-641.

  Bergin, A.  (1980).  Religious and humanistic values:  A reply to Ellis and Walls. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 642-645.

  Everstene, L., Everstene, D., Heyman, G., True, R., Frey, D., Johnson, H., & Seiden, R.  (1980).  Privacy and confidentiality in psychotherapy.  American Psychologist, 35, 828-840.

  Hays, J., Kazan, S., & Noll, J.  (1981).  Comments on Everstene et al. (1981).

American Psychologist, 36, 914-916.

  American Psychological Association.  (1981).  Specialty guidelines for delivery of services by clinical psychologists.  American Psychologist, 36, 640-651.

  American Psychological Association.  (1982).  Committee in professional standards. Casebook for providers of psychological services.  American Psychologist, 37, 698-701.

  American Psychological Association.  (1983).  Committee on professional standards. Casebook for providers of psychological services.  American Psychologist, 39, 708-713.

  Widiger, T., & Rorey, L.  (1984).   The responsible psychotherapist.  American

    Psychologist, 39, 503-515. American Psychological Association.  (1975).  Report of the task force on sex bias and sex role stereotyping in psychotherapeutic practice.  American Psychologist, 30, 1169-1175.

**American Psychological Association.  (1978).  Task force on sex bias and sex role stereotyping in psychotherapeutic practice.  Guideline for therapy with women. American Psychologist, 33, 1122-1123.

  Brodskey, A.  (1982).  Sex, race, and class issues in psychotherapy research.  In J.H. Harvey & M.M. Parks (Eds.), Psychotherapy research and behavior change.

Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association, 127-150.

  American Psychological Association Committee on Professional Standards.  (1986). Casebook for providers of psychological services.  American Psychologist, 41, 688-693.

  American Psychological Association, Committee on Professional Standards.  (1987). Casebook for providers of psychological services.  American Psychologist, 42,704-711.

**Sue, S., & Zane, N.  (1987).  The role of culture and cultural techniques in

    psychotherapy.  American Psychologist, 42, 37-45.

  Malgady, R., Rogler, L., & Constantino, R. (1987).  Ethnocultural and linguistic bias in mental health evaluations of Hispanics.  American Psychologist, 42, 228-234.

  Rogler, L., Malgady, R., Constantino, R., & Blumenthal, P. (1987).  What do

culturally sensitive mental health services mean.  American Psychologist, 42,

565-570.

**Pope, K.S., Tabachnek, B.G., & Keith-Spiegel, P. (1987).  Ethics of practice:  The beliefs and behaviors of psychologists as therapists.  American Psychologist, 42, 993-1006.

  Sue, S. (1988). Psychotherapeutic services for ethnic minorities:  Two decades of research findings.  American Psychologist, 43, 301-307.

 American Psychological Association, (1988).  Casebook for providers of psychological services.  American Psychologist, 43, 557-563.

  Kelly, T.A. (1990). The role of values in psychotherapy: A critical review of

process and outcome effects. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 171-186.

  Sue, S., Fujino, D.C., Hu, L., Takeuchi, D.T., & Zane, N. (1991).  Community mental health services for ethnic minority groups:  A test of the cultural responsiveness hypothesis.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 533-540.

  Landrine, H. (1992). Clinical implications of cultural differences: The referential versus the indexical self. Clinical Psychology Review, 12, 401-415.

  Garnets, L., Hancock, K.A., Cochran, S.D., Goodchilds, J., & Peplau, L. A. (1991). Issues in psychotherapy with lesbians and gay men: A survey of psychologists. American Psychologist, 46, 964-972.

*Bergin, A. (1991). Values and religious issues in psychotherapy and mental health. American Psychologist, 46, 394-403.

  Bednar, R. L., Bednar, S. C., Lambert, M. J. & WAite, D. R. (1991). psychotherapy with high-risk clients. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

  Propst, L., Ostrom, R. Watkins, P., Dean, T., & Mashburn, D. (1992). Comparative efficacy of religious and nonreligious Cognitive-behavior therapy for the treatment of clinical depression in religious individuals. Journal

of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 94-103.

  Worthington, E.L., Kurusu, T.A., McCullough, M.E. & Sandage, S.J. (1996).

Empirical research on religion and psychotherapeutic processes and outcomes:

A 10-year review and research prospectus. Psycholgoical Bulletin, 1996,119,

448-487.

**Monahan, J. (1993). Limiting therapist exposure to Tarasoff Liability. American Psychologist, 48, 242-250.

**American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611.

**Sue, S., Zane, N., & Young, K. (1994). Research on psychotherapy with culturally diverse populations.  In Handbook (Chapt 19).

**Division 44. (2000). Guidelines for psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. American Psychologist, 55, 1440-1451.

VII.  The Systems of Psychotherapy

  In studying the theoretical backgrounds of the various schools of thought, these  general references may be helpful.

    Monte, C.  (1999).  Beneath the mask. (6th ed.) New York: Holt, Reinhart, & Winston

  Maddi, S.  (1996).  Personality theories (6th ed.).  Homewood, IL:  Dorsey.

  Prochaska, J. & Novcross, C. (2003).  Systems of psychotherapy:  A transtheoretical analysis. (5th ed.) Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole.

 

A.   Psychoanalysis.

 

**Arlow, J.  Psychoanalysis.  In Corsini (Chapter 2).

  Freud, S.  (1953).  The interpretation of dreams.  In the standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud,  Vol. 4 & 5.  London:  Hogarth Press.

  Freud, S.  (1957).  On the history of the psychoanalytic movement.  Standard

Edition, Vol. 14.

  Freud, S.  (1916).  Introductory lectures on psychoanalysis.  Standard Edition, Vol. 15 & 16.

  Freud, S.  (1933).  New introductory lectures.  Standard Edition, Vol. 22. (1964).

  Freud, S.  (1940).  An outline of psychoanalysis.  Standard Edition. Vol. 23, (1964).

  Freud, S.  (1909).  Analysis of a phobia in a five-year-old boy.  In Standard

Edition, Vol. 10.

  Freud, S.  (1909).  Notes upon a case of obsessional neurosis.  In Standard Edition,  Vol. 10.

*Henry, W.P., Strupp, H.H., Schacht, T.E., & Gaston, L. (1994). Psychodynamic

approaches. In Handbook (Chapt 11).

 

B.   Rogers.

**Raskin, N., & Rogers, C.  Person-centered therapy.  In Corsini (Chapter 5).

  Rogers, C.  (1951).  Client-centered therapy.  Boston:  Houghton Mifflin.

 

**Rogers, C.  (1957).  The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic

personality change.  Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21, 95-103.

  Rogers, C.  (1969).  A theory of therapy, personality, and interpersonal

relationships, as developed in the client-centered framework.  In S. Koch (Ed.),

Psychology:  A study of science, Vol.  III.  New York:  McGraw-Hill.

  Rogers, C.  (1961).  On becoming a person.  Boston:  Houghton-Mifflin.

  Rogers, C.  (1970).  Carl Rogers on encounter groups.  New York: Harper & Row.

  Rogers, C.  (1972).  On becoming partners: Marriage and its alternatives. New York: Delacourte.

  Rogers, C.  (1977).  Carl Rogers on personal powers.  New York:  Delacourte.

  Rogers, C.  (1980).  A way of being.  Boston:  Houghton Mifflin.

**Gendlin, E.T. (1988).  Carl Rogers (1902-1987).  (Obituary).  American Psychologist, 43, 127-128.

  Kirchenbaum, H. & Henderson, V. (eds.) (1989).  The Carl Rogers reader. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

 *Greenberg, L.S., Eliott, R.K., & Lietaer, G. (1994). Research on experiental

    psychotherapies. (Chapter 12).

 

C.  Ellis.

**Ellis, A.  Rational-emotive therapy.  In Corsini (Chapter 6).

  Ellis, A.  (1962).  Reason and emotion in psychotherapy.  New York:  Lyle Stuart.

  Ellis, A.  (1968).  What really causes therapeutic change?  Voices, 4(2), 90-97.

  Ellis, A.  (1971).  Growth through reason.  Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.

  Ellis, A.  (1982).  Rational-emotive therapy and cognitive behavior therapy. New York:  Springer.

  Ellis, A., & Grieger, R.  (1987).  Handbook of rational-emotive therapy (2 vols.). New York: Springer.

 

D.  Reality Therapy.

**Glasser, W., & Wubbolding, R.  Reality Therapy.  In Corsini (3rd. ed) (Chapter 9).

  Glasser, W.  (1961).  Mental health or mental illness?  New York:  Harper & Rowe.

  Glasser, W.  (1965).  Reality therapy.  New York:  Harper & Rowe.

  Glasser, W.  (1969).  Schools without failure.  New York:  Harper & Rowe.

  Glasser, W.  (1972).  The identity society.  New York:  Harper & Rowe.

  Glasser, W.  (1976).  Positive addiction.  New York:  Harper & Rowe.

  Glasser, W.  (1981).  Stations of the mind.  New York:  Harper & Rowe.

 

E.  Gestalt Therapy.

**Yontef, G., & Jacobs, L.  Gestalt therapy.  In Corsini (Chapter 10).

  Fagan, J., & Shepherd, S.  (1970).  Gestalt therapy now.  Palo Alto, CA:  Science and Behavior Books.

  Perls, R.  (1969).  Gestalt therapy verbatim.  Lafayette, CA:  Real People Press.

  Perls, T.  (1969).  In and out of the garbage pail.  Lafayette, CA:  Real People Press.

  Perls, T.  (1969).  Ego, hunger, and aggression.  New York:  Random House.

  Perls, T., Hefferline, R., & Goodman, P.  (1958).  Gestalt therapy.  New York:

Julian Press.

  Perls, T.  (1973).  The Gestalt approach and eye witness to therapy.  Ben Lomand, CA:  Science and Behavior.

  Kempler, W.  (1973).  Gestalt therapy.  In R. Corsini (Ed.), Current psychotherapy. Itasca, IL:  T.E. Peacock, 1st ed.

  Kogan, J. (1980). Gestalt therapy resources. (3rd. ed) Berkerly, CA: Transformation Press.

 

F.  Transactional Analysis.

**Dusay, J., & Dusay, K.  Transactional analysis.  In Corsini (Chapter 11, 4th ed.).

  Berne, E.  (1961).  Transactional analysis in psychotherapy.  New York:  Grove

Press.

  Berne, E.  (1964).  Games people play.  New York:  Grove Press.

  Berne, E.  (1972).  What do you do after you say hello?  New York:  Grove Press.

  Berne, E.  (1970).  Sex in human loving.  New York:  Simon & Schuster.

  Harris, T.  (1969).  I'm OK -- You're OK.  New York:  Harper & Row.

  Kleen, M. (1980). Lives people live: A textbook of transactional analysis. London:  Wiley.

  Dusay, J. (1977). Egograms: How I see you and you see me. New York: Harper & Row.

 

G.  Family Systems Approaches.

**Goldenberg, H. & Goldenberg, I. Family therapy.  In Corsini (Chapter 12).

  Haley, J., & Hoffman, L.  (1967).  Technique of family therapy.  New York:  Basic Books.

  Bowen, M.  (1978).  Family therapy in clinical practice.  New York: Jason Aronson.

  Satir, W.  (1964).  Conjoint family therapy.  Palo Alto, CA:  Science & Behavior Books.

  Framo, J.  (1982).  Explorations in marital and family therapy.  New York:

Springer.

  Haley, J.  (1963).  Strategies of psychotherapy.  New York:  Gruen.

  Haley, J.  (1969).  The power tactics of Jesus Christ and other essays.  New York: Avon.

  Haley, J.  (1967).  Marriage therapy.  In H. Greenwald (Ed.), Active psychotherapy. New York:  Atherton.

  Satir, V.  (1972).  Peoplemaking.  Palo Alto, CA:  Science & Behavior.

  Minuchin, S.  (1974).  Families and family therapy.  Cambridge:  Harvard Press.

  Gurman, A., & Knistern, A. (eds.) (1981). Handbook of family therapy. New York: Bruner Mazell.

  Foley, V. (1986). An introduction to family therapy. (2nd ed.) New York: Gruen & Stratton.

 

H.  Behavior Therapy.

**Wilson, G.T.  Behavior Therapy.  In Corsini (Chapter 7).

  Bandura, A.  (1969).  Principles of behavior modification.  New York:  Holt,

    Rinehart, & Winston.

  Kanfer, T., & Phillips, J.  (1970).  Learning foundations of behavior therapy.  New York:  Wiley.

  Lazarus, A.  (1971).  Behavior therapy and beyond.  New York:  McGraw-Hill.

  Goldfried, M., & Davison, G.  (1976).  Clinical behavior therapy.  New York:  Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

  Yates, A.  (1975).  Theory and practice in behavior therapy.  New York:  John Wiley.

  O'Leary, K., & Wilson, G.  (1987).  Behavior therapy:  Application and outcome. (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice Hall.

  Franks, C., & Wilson, G.T.  Annual review of behavior therapy: Theory and practice. New York:  Bruner & Mazell.  Vol. 1-8.

  Kanfer, F. & Goldstein, A. (1980). (eds.) Helping people change. New York: Pergamon.

  Kazden, A. (1980). Behavior modification in applied settings. (2nd ed.) Homewood, IL: Dorsey.

 *Emmelkamp, P.M.G. (1994). Behavior therapy with adults. (Chapter 9 in Handbook).

  Thorpe, G. L. & Olson, S. L. (1990). Behavior theaapy: Concepts, Procedures, and applications. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

  Spiegler, M. D. & Guevremont, D. C. (1998). Contemporary behavior therapy (3rd ed.).  New York: Brooks Cole.

  Miltenberger, R.G. (2001). Behavior modification: Principles and procedures (2nd ed.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

**Jacobsen, N.S., Martell, C.R., Y Dimidjian, S. (2001).

Behavioral activation treatment for depression: Returning to contextual roots. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 8, 255-270.

 

I.  Bioenergetics.

**Lowen, A. Bioenergetic analysis. In Corsini (pp. 409-418, 5th ed).

  Lowen, A.  (1971)  The language of the body.  New York:  Collier.

  Lowen, A. (1967).  Betrayal of the body.  New York:  McMillan.

  Lowen, A.  (1970).  Pleasure.  New York:  Coward-McMann.

  Feldenkrais, M.  (1972).  Awareness through movement.  New York:  Harper & Rowe.

  Reich, Wl  (1949).  Character analysis.  New York:  Orgone Press.

  Harper, R.  (1975).  The new psychotherapies.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice Hall.

  Lowen, A.  (1973).  Depression and the body.  Baltimore, MD:  Penguin Books.

  Lowen, A. (1984). Narcissism: Denial of the true self. New York: Macmillan.

 

J.  Jungian Therapy.

**Douglas, C.  Analytical psychotherapy.  In Corsini (Chapter 4).

  Jung, C.  The practice of psychotherapy.  Essays on the psychology of the

transference and other subjects.  In Collected Works, Vol. 16.

  Jung, C.  (1917).  Two essays on analytical psychology.  In Collected Works, Vol. 7.

  Jung, C.  (1921).  Psychological types.  In Collected Works, Vol. 6.  (1959).

  Jung, C.  (1936).  The archetypes and the collective unconscious.  In Collected Works, Vol. 9.  (1959).

  Jung, C.  (1954).  The development of personality.  In Collected Works, Vol. 17. (1964).

  Jung, C.  (1961).  Memories, dreams, and reflections.  New York:  Pantheon.

  Jung, C.  (1968).  Analytical psychology:  Its theory and practice.  New York:

Pantheon Press.

 

K.  Adlerian Therapy.

**Mosak, H.  Adlerian Psychotherapy.  In Corsini (Chapter 3).

  Ansbacher, H., & Ansbacher, R.  (Eds.).  (1958).  The individual psychology of

    Alfred Adler.  New York:  Basic Books.

  Adler, A.  (1959).  Understanding human nature.  New York:  Premier Books.

  Adler, A.  (1963).  The practice and theory of individual psychology.  Patterson, NJ: Littefield, Adams.

  Adler, A.  (1964).  Problems of neurosis.  New York:  Harper & Rowe.

  Manaster, G. & Corsini, R. (1982). Individual psychology. Itaska, IL: FE Peacock.

 

L.  Existential Therapy.

**May, R., & Yalom, I.  Existential Psychotherapy.  In Corsini (Chapter 9).

  Boss, M.  (1963).  Psychoanalysis and daseinsanalysis.  New York:  Basic Books.

  May, R., Angel, E., & Ellengerger, H.  (Eds.).  (1958).  Existence.  New York:

Basic Books.

  Kopp, S.  (1977).  Back to one.  Palo Alto, CA:  Science and Behavior.

  Corlis, R., & Rabe, P.  (1969).  Psychotherapy from the center.  Scranton, PA:

International Textbooks.

  Kopps, S.  If you meet Bhudda on the road, kill him.

  May, R.  (1967).  Psychology and the human dilemma.  New York:  Van Nostrand

Reinhold.

  May, R.  (1981).  Freedom and destiny.  New York:  Norton.

  Yalom, I.  (1980).  Existential psychotherapy.  New York:  Basic Books.

**Yalom, I. (1989). Love's executioner (pp. 87-117). New York: Basic Books.

 

M.  Logotherapy.

**Patterson, C.  (1973).  Theories of counseling and psychotherapy.  New York:  Harper and Rowe.  (Chapter 18).

  Frankl. V.  (1969).  Man's search for meaning.  New York:  Washington Square Press.

  Frankl, V.  (1963).  The doctor and the soul.  New York:  Knopf.

  Frankl, V.  (1967).  Psychotherapy and existentialism:  Selected papers on

logotherapy.  New York:  Washington Square Press.

  Frankl, V.  (1969).  The will to meaning.  New York:  World.

 

N.  Sullivan.

**Rychlak, J.  (1981).  Introduction to personality and psychotherapy.  Boston:

Houghton Mifflin (Chapter 5).

  Sullivan, H.  (1940).  Conceptions of modern psychiatry.  New York:  Norton.

  Sullivan, H.  (1963).  the Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry.  New York:  Norton.

  Sullivan, H.  The psychiatric interview.  New York:  Norton.

  Sullivan, H.  (1956).  Clinical studies in psychiatry.  New York:  Norton.

 

O.  Kelly.

**Rychlak, J.  (1981).  Introduction to personality and psychotherapy.  Boston:

    Houghton Mifflin (Chapter 11).

  Kelly, G.  (1973).  Fixed-role therapy.  In R. Jurjevich, Direct psychotherapy. Coral Gables, FL.:  University of Miami.

  Kelly, G.  (1955).  The psychology of personal constructs.  Vol. I: A theory of personality.  New York:  Norton.

  Kelly, G.  (1955).  The psychology of personal constructs.  Vol. II:  Clinical

    diagnosis and psychotherapy.  New York:  Norton.

  Kelly, G.  (1969).  Clinical psychology and personality:  The selected papers of George Kelly.  New York:  Wiley.

 

P.  Psychodrama.

**Blatner, A.  Psychodrama.  In Corsini (pp. 399-408, 5th ed.).

  Moreno, J.  (1959).  Psychodrama.  In L. Arieti (Ed.),  American handbook of

psychiatry.  Vol. II.

  Moreno, J.  (1946).  Psychodrama.  New York:  Beacon.

  Moreno, J.  (1967).  Reflections on my method of group psychotherapy and

psychodrama.  In M. Greenwald (Ed.),  Active psychotherapy.  New York:  Atherton.

  Yablonski, L. (1976). Psychodrama. New York: Basic Books.

  Blatner, A (1988). Foundations of psychodrama. New York: Springer.

 

 

Q.  Primal Therapy.

**Harper, R.  (1957).  The new psychotherapies.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice Hall, 128-130.

**Corsini, 3rd Edition, pp. 538-539.

  Janov, A.  (1970).  The primal scream.  New York:  Putnam.

  Janov, A.  (1971).  The anatomy of mental illness:  The scientific bases of primal therapy.  New York:  Putnam.

  Janov, A.  (1972).  The primal revolution -- Toward a real world.  New York:  Simon & Schuster.

  Janov, A., & Holden, M.  (1975).  Primal man:  The new consciousness.  New York: Crowell.

 

R.  Encounter and Human Potential.

**Mann, J.  Human Potential.  In Corsini (Chapter 13) in 2nd Edition.

  Rogers, C.  (1970).  Carl Rogers on encounter groups.  New York:  Harper & Rowe.

  Schutz, M.  (1967).  Joy.  New York:  Grove Press.

  Schutz, M.  (1971).  Here comes everybody.  New York:  Harper & Rowe.

  Burton, A.  (Ed.).  (1969).  Encounter.  San Francisco:  Josey Bass.

  Howard, J.  (1970).  Please touch.  New York:  McGraw-Hill.

  Lieberman, M., Yalon, L., & Miles, M.  (1973).  Encounter groups: First facts.  New York:  Boris.

 

S.  Alexander.

**Patterson, C.  (1979).  Theories of counseling and psychotherapy.  New York:  Harper & Rowe (Chapter 11).

  Alexander, F.  (1963).  Fundamentals of psychoanalysis.  New York:  Norton.

  Alexander, F., & French, T.  (1946).  Psychoanalytic therapy.  New York:  Ronald press.

  Alexander, F.  (1956).  Psychoanalysis and psychotherapy.  New York:  Norton.

 

T.  Greenwald and Direct Decision Therapy.

**Harper, R.  (1975).  The new psychotherapies.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice Hall, 145-148.

  Greenwald, H.  (1973).  Decision therapy.  New York:  Wyden.

 

U.  Mowrer.

**Mowrer, O.H.  (1973).  Integrity groups today.  In Jurfevich (Ed.), Direct

psychotherapy, Vol. 2.  Coral Gables, FL:  University of Miami Press, Chapter 19.

  Mowrer, O.H.  (1961).  The crisis in psychiatry & religion.  Princeton, NJ:  Van Norstrand.

  Mowrer, O.H.  (1964).  The new group therapy.  Princeton, NJ:  Van Norstrand.

  Mowrer, O.H.  (1963).  Integrity therapy:  A self-help approach.  Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 3, 114-119.

 

V.  Neurolinguistic Programming.

**In Corsini, 3rd Edition, 537-538.

  Grinder, J., & Bandler, R.  (1975 & 1976).  The structure of magic I and II.

  Bandler, R., & Grinder, J.  (1979).  Frogs into princes.  Moab, UT:  Real People Press.

  Grinder, J., & Bandler, R.  (1981).  Trance formation.  Moab, UT: Real People Press.

 

W.  Play Therapy.

  Axline, V.  (1947).  Play therapy.  Boston:  Houghton Mifflin.

  Axline, V.  (1964).  Dibs in search of self.  New York:  Balantine.

  Klein, M.  (1949).  The psychoanalysis of children.  New York:  Hogarth.

  Moustakas, C.E.  (1953).  Children in play therapy.  New York:  McGraw Hill.

  Gumaer, J. (1984). Counseling and therapy for children.  New York:  The Free Press.

  Landreth, G. (1982). Play therapy:  Dynamics of the process of counseling with

children.  Springfield, IL:  Charles C. Thomas

 

X.  Multimodal Therapy.

**Lazarus, A.  Multimodal therapy.  In Corsini (Chapter 11).

  Lazarus, A.  (1976).  Multimodal behavior therapy.  New York:  Springer.

  Lazarus, A.  (1989).  The practice of multimodal therapy. (2nd ed.) Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

  Brunell, L. & Young, W. (eds.) (1985). Multimodal handbook for a mental hospital. New York: Springer.

 

Y.  Cognitive Therapy.

**Beck, A., & Weisharr, M. Cognitive Therapy. In Corsini (Chapter 8).

  Beck, A., Rush, A., Shaw, B., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therpay of depression. New York: Guilford.

  Emery, G., Hollon, S., & Bedrosian, R. (Eds.) (1981). New directions in cognitive therapy. New York: Guilford.

  Beck, A. & Emery, G. (1986). Anxiety disorders and phobias: A cognitive perspective. New York: Basic Books.

  Sank, L. & Shaffer, C. (1984). A therapist's manual for cognitive behavior therapy in groups. New York: Plenum Press.

 *Hollon, S.P. & Beck, A.T. (1994). Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies. In Handbook (Chapter 10).

 

Z. Interpersonal Therapy.

**Shiang, J. & Bongar, B. (1995). Brief and crisis psychotherapy in theory and practice.  In B. Bongar and L. E. Beutler (eds.) Comprehensive testbook of

psychotherapy, pp. 380-401. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

  Klerman, G., Weissman, M. Rounseville, B. & Chevron, E. (1994). Interpersonal pychotherapy of depression. New York: Basic Books.

  Cornes, C. (1990). Interpersonal psychotherapy of depression. In R. Wells and      

V. Gianetti, (eds.), Handbook of the brief psychotherapies.  New York: Plenum Press.

  Klerman, G. & Weissman, M. (eds.) (1993). New applications of interpersonal psychotherapy. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

 

AA. Feminist Therapy.

Brown, L.S., (1992).  A feminist critique of the personality disorders.  In L.S. Brown & M. Ballon (Eds.), Personality and Psychopathology: Feminist Reappraisals (pp. 206-228).  New York: Guilford Press.

Brown, L.S., (1994).  Subversive Dialogues: Theory in Feminist Therapy.  New York: Basic Books.

Chaney, S.E., & Piercy, F.P. (1988). A feminist family therapist behavior checklist. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 16 (4), 305-318.

Chapman, J., & Park, S. (1984).  Marital therapy and feminism.  Australian Journal of Family Therapy, 5 (4), 259-265.

Dankoski, M.E., Penn, C.D., Carlson, T.D., & Hecker, L.L. (1998).  What’s in a name?  A study of family therapists’ use and acceptance of the feminist perspective.  The American Journal of Family Therapy, 26, 95-104.

Enns, C.Z. (1997).  Feminist Theories and Feminist Psychotherapies: Origins, Themes, and Variations.  New York: The Harrington Park Press.

Enns, C.Z., & Hackett, G. (1990). Comparison of feminist and nonfeminist women’s reactions to variants of nonsexist and feminist counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37 (1), 33-40.

Gauthier, L.M., & Levendosky, A.A. (1996). Assessment and treatment of couples with abusive male partners: Guidelines for therapists. Psychotherapy, 33 (3), 403-417. Hackett, G., Enns, C.Z., & Zetzer, H.A. (1992). Reactions of women to nonsexist and feminist counseling: Effects of counselor orientation and mode of information delivery. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39 (3), 321-330.

Hill, M., & Ballou, Mary, (1998).  Making therapy feminist: a practice survey.  Women  and Therapy, 21(2), 1-16.

Juntunen, C.L., Atkinson, D.R., Reyes, C., & Gutierrez, M. (1994).  Feminist identity and feminist therapy behaviors of women psychotherapists.  Psychotherapy, 31 (2), 327-333.

Lerman, H., & Porter, N. (Eds.). (1990).  Feminist Ethics in Psychotherapy.  New York: Springer Publishing Company. McNamara, K., & Rickard, K.M. (1989). Feminist identity development: Implications for feminist therapy with women. Journal of Counseling & Development,68, 184-189. Nutt, R.L. (1992). Feminist family therapy: A review of the literature. Topics in Family Psychology and Counseling, 1 (2), 13-23.

Sands, T. (1998). Feminist counseling and female adolescents: Treatment strategies for depression. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 20 (1), 42-54.

Worell, J., & Remer, P. (1992).  Feminist Perspectives in Therapy: An Empowerment Model for Women.  New York:  John Wiley & Sons.

 

BB. Dialectical Behavior Therapy

 

**Scheel, K.R. (2000). The empirical bisis of dialectical behavior therapy: Summary, critique, and implications. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 7, 68-86.

Linehan, M.M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral therapy of borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford Press.

Linehan, M.M. (2000). The empirical basis of dialectical behavior therapy: Developments of new treatments versus evaluation of existing treatments. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 7, 113-119.

 

CC. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

 

**Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S. M. (2002). Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance based approaches with existing cognitive-behavioral models. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 54-68.

Hayes, S.C., Strosahl, K., 7 Wilson, K.G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford.

Hayes, S.C., Wilson, K.W., Gifford, W.V., Follette, V.M., & Strosahl, K. (1996). Emotional avoidance and behavioral disorders: A functional dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,64, 1152-1168.