Abstract: This project will investigate the integration of wind power, PV solar power, and Li-Ion battery energy storage into a microgrid-based charging station for electric vehicles. This EV charging station will be appropriate for "park and drive" facilities meaning that the EV vehicles will typically be parked at the facility for several hours during daytime hours when the PV and wind sources will generally be experiencing their most favorable conditions to deliver the required energy. The goal is for the internal renewable energy (RE) sources to provide as much of the charging energy as possible. However, the facility will be connected to the grid so that power will still be available to perform the charging functions during cloudy, windless days.
In addition, it is assumed that lithium-ion battery energy storage will be available in limited amounts to perform the dual roles of: 1) smoothing the power delivered to the EVs and the power drawn from the grid caused by inevitable variations in the power delivered by the RE sources due to wind intermittency and cloud shadowing; and 2) providing an emergency energy source and network stabilizing influence when the microgrid is separated from the grid (islanded) due to unplanned grid outages caused by storms or equipment failure.
To conduct the proposed research effort, investigators at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and Wisconsin-Madison have assembled a university/industry project team that includes university participants at UW-Milwaukee and UW-Madison, and industry participants from Johnson Controls Inc., Eaton Corporation, DRS Technologies. The university participants have strong background and experience in power conversion and electrical power distribution systems, energy storage systems, and power system analysis and control. The industrial participants include two power conversion system manufacturers, and an energy storage manufacturer.
PI: Adel Nasiri, UW-Milwaukee, Co-PI: Thomas Jahns, UW-Madison
Abstract: The objective of this research is to develop an innovative integrated wind and energy storage system to support wind energy to achieve higher penetration in the electric utility grid. Energy storage can play a major role in improving the short-term and long-term dynamics, power dispatchability, and reducing voltage and frequency footprint of the wind energy.
The main intellectual merit of this project is to model, simulate, and characterize an integrated system of wind turbine generator hardware and controls with a new utility scale battery. The analysis from the modeling and simulation will be applied and a scaled down model of the system will be built, tested and characterized. The system developed in this project is capable of assisting in mitigating dynamic power intermittency, long term power smoothing and power shifting, regulating voltage, controlling power ramp rate, and frequency droop control.
The main broader impact is to provide quality integrated education, research, and engineering to meet the emerging workforce and needs of nation's energy industry. The project team will promote education as an integrated part of this project. The results of this research will be integrated in workshops, short courses, and courses to be taught to undergraduate and graduate students and working professionals. Although there is a large population of minorities, including African-Americans and Hispanics, in the greater Milwaukee area, the percent of minority students at UWM is insignificant. One goal of this project is to include underrepresented minority and female students in this research.
Abstract: In order to sustainably increase the penetration of the renewable energy sources, they need to provide electromechanical stability support for the electric grid. Currently, wind energy installations do not provide any frequency and inertia support for the utility grid as the conventional power generators do. Utility companies are requesting that the wind farms participate in grid voltage and frequency support. In this project, we are proposing to use turbine level energy storage systems (ultracapacitors and batteries) to provide frequency and inertia support. The output power of the farm and grid frequency are monitored to adjust the storage charging/discharging patterns at the turbine level in order to achieve frequency and inertia support. For the last 3-4 years, the PI has been conducting research on integrating different types of energy devices with wind turbines. The goal has been to perform power smoothing and power ramp control for the wind farms. The wind turbine topology to perform long and short term wind energy support has been patented by the PI through UWM Research Foundation. The same topology can be used for inertia emulation and frequency support. The objective of this project is to conduct the initial study and prove the viability of our patented topology for inertia and frequency support.
Abstract: In this project, we propose to utilize Lithium-Ion Capacitor (LIC) on the DC bus of a full four-quadrant power conversion system utilizing an algorithm to (i) pull mechanical power surges off the drivetrain and into the LIC for dispatch to the grid and (ii) support the grid and protect the turbine during power system transients. The immediate benefit of the proposed topology is less mechanical wear, higher efficiency and lower cost as well as improving power system transient stability. The proposed topology requires that the target wind turbine have double conversion converter. This type of wind turbine system is experiencing a large growth due to needs for more controllable systems. The example systems include GE 2.5MW, Siemens 2.3 and 3.6MW, ABB 0.5MW through 5MW, Clipper 2.5MW and majority of new small wind turbines. The utilized energy storage device is an LIC manufactured by JM Energy Corporation, a subsidiary of JSR Corporation. The main objective of this project to develop, model, design, optimize, build a scaled down model, and characterize an integrated system of LIC energy storage and power conversion system that provides extended mechanical operating life, higher power efficiency and improved quality of output energy and power.
PI: Adel Nasiri, UW-Milwaukee, Co-PI: David Yu, UW-Milwaukee
Abstract: The electric energy generation using wind turbines have been in form of AC (Alternating Current) so far. Previously existing machines and power conversion systems and techniques have been adapted in wind energy systems. DC power distribution systems offer several benefits over conventional AC distribution systems. They have been utilized in High Voltage DC (HVDC) transmission lines. Small advanced micro grids such as International Space Station, more electric ships and more electric airplanes use DC distribution systems.
The main objective of this proposed study is to investigate the DC power distribution within a wind farm for wind energy. Instead of double conversion from AC to DC and back to AC at wind turbines, generated AC power is converted to DC and linked to a DC system. Large size DC/AC inverters at wind farm convert the power to AC form and interconnect with the utility grid. In brief, the benefits of the proposed system are higher energy efficiency, higher reliability, and less cable and equipment cost. In addition, the energy storage elements, which are mainly in DC form, can be integrated easier and more efficient than in the conventional AC systems. Energy storage utilization is required to support more penetration of renewable energy. Other renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic (PV) solar, which is in form of DC, can be integrated with wind energy more efficiently. Additionally, There are long term plans to build long HVDC transmission lines in the U.S. to transfer wind power from rural areas to population centers. A DC distribution wind farm will be more efficient and cost effective to be connected to HVDC system.
The goals of the project include (i) developing the architecture of the proposed DC distribution system (ii) sizing components and determining electrical parameters (iii) energy storage integration (iv) addressing grid interconnection issues. A model of the proposed system will be developed that allows for energy transfer from wind turbines to gird, controls of DC voltage, and utility grid support with reactive power support and low voltage ride through capabilities.
PI: Adel Nasiri, UW-Milwaukee, Co-PI: Nabeel Damerdash, Marquette University
Abstract: The research and investigation proposed in this project center on inventing/conceiving a practical and reasonably inexpensive method or methods by which the main flux in Permanent Magnet (PM) poly-phase synchronous machines can be controlled, for purposes of substantially weakening or eliminating such main flux. This would greatly and significantly simplify the task of protection of such machines in renewable energy wind-based electric energy generation applications, as well as in applications when such PM machines are used in modern adjustable speed drives (ASDs) utilized in hybrid and plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles. The motivation for use of such PM poly-phase synchronous machines stems from the fact that such machines, used as generators and motors, offer significant advantages over the conventional poly-phase synchronous and induction machines due to their lower weight and volume, as well as their simpler construction, and their potential amenabilities to designs with very high efficiencies. Therefore, such machines represent an
attractive alternative in renewable and alternate energy, as well as higher efficiency energysaving/conservation applications.