Stefan Schnitzer
 

  Professor
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
P.O. Box 413
Milwaukee, WI 53201

phone: (414) 229 - 3146 
fax: (414) 229 - 3926

S1@uwm.edu

Publications

Information for Prospective
Students

Lab Members

Courses

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Liana Ecology Project

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Education

Ph.D. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Pittsburgh, 2001

Research Interests
Professional Appointments

Professor, School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2014 - present
Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2012 - 2014
Associate Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2009 - 2012
Research Associate, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 2006-present
Faculty, Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2003 - present
Assistant Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2003 - 2009
Research Associate, Wageningen University, Netherlands, 2002 - present
Post-Doctoral Research Associate, Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 2001 - 2003

Selected Honors & Awards

NSF Research Award DEB-1257989, 2013-2016
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Water Catalyst Grant, 2014-2015
NSF Research Award DEB-1019436, 2010-2014
NSF CAREER “Young Investigators” Award DEB-0845071, 2009-2014
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Research Growth Initiative Award, 2012-2014
Editorial Board, Biotropica, 2009-2012
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Research Growth Initiative Award, 2011-2012
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Research Foundation Research Fellow Award, 2010
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Research Growth Initiative Award, 2009-2011
Dutch National Science Foundation Visiting Faculty Fellowship, Wageningen University, Netherlands, 2009
Production Ecology & Resource Conservation Fellowship, Wageningen University, Netherlands, 2009
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Research Growth Initiative Award, 2007-2009
NSF Research Award DEB-0613666, 2006-2010
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Research Growth Initiative Award, 2006-2008
Guest Editor, Forest Ecology & Management, 2004
Visiting Scholar, Wageningen University, Netherlands, 2001
Commendation for the British Ecological Society’s John L. Harper Young Investigator’s Award for 2000, Journal of Ecology, 88: 939
Andrew W. Mellon Predoctoral Fellowship, University of Pittsburgh, 2000-2001
Stanton C. Crawford Award for Excellence in Teaching, University of Pittsburgh, 1999

Research Overview

The Schnitzer Lab focuses on understanding the forces that structure plant communities, maintain species diversity, and allow species to coexist.  We are implementing a variety of studies designed to determine how plant community diversity is maintained and how plant communities regenerate, compete, and interact in tropical forests.  

Forest Regeneration and the Maintenance of Species Diversity

How do forests regenerate and what mechanisms maintain forest diversity? 

Negative Density Dependence appear to maintain tree species diversity in many ecosystems.  We are conducting research on negative density dependence in tropical and temperate forests, as well as in temperate grasslands (e.g., Mangan et al. 2010, Schnitzer et al. 2011, Schnitzer & Klironomos 2011).  For tropical forest tree species, soil pathogens appear to be the agent of negative density dependence - maintaining tree species diversity and determining tree species distribution and relative abundances (Mangan et al. 2010).  The same phenomenon may also occur in grasslands (Schnitzer et al. 2011, Schnitzer & Klironomos 2011).

For liana species, negative density dependence does not maintain diversity, does and habitat specialization.  We are now confident that liana diversity is maintained by disturbance, particularly treefall gaps (Ledo & Schnitzer, 2014).  Indeed, treefall gaps play a large role in forest regeneration and the maintenance of liana species diversity (see Schnitzer and Carson 2000, 2001, Schnitzer et al. 2000, 2008, Schnitzer and Carson 2010, Dalling et al. 2012, Ledo & Schnitzer 2014).  However, there remain many plant-plant interactions occurring in treefall gaps that are ignored by the simplified model of gap-phase regeneration (Schnitzer & Carson 2010).

We are examining a subset of these interactions to determine what role, if any, they play in gap-phase regeneration and the maintenance of species diversity.  Most of this work is currently being conducted at Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI), and there are opportunities for graduate research on these projects.  There are additional opportunities for related or parallel experiments in temperate forests at the University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.  

Plant Competition

How do plants compete in terrestrial communities?  We know that plants compete for resources in most terrestrial ecosystems; however, a less obvious issue is whether plants compete more for above-ground resources (primarily light) or for below-ground resources (water and nutrients).  The answer to this question depends on the most limiting resource in any particular environment.  For example, plants in many grasslands, where light is abundant, are probably competing more for below-ground resources than for light.  In forests, however, light is very low in the understory, and thus plants in these systems are thought to be light limited.

We are investigating the relative importance of above- versus below-ground competition between plants in tropical forests.  Currently, our studies  involve liana versus tree competition, liana versus liana, and tree versus tree competition. 

The Community Ecology of Lianas

How do lianas add to forest dynamics, diversity, and complexity?  Lianas (woody vines) are an abundant and diverse group of plants in forests throughout the world, particularly in the tropics.  Lianas play a vital role in many aspects of forest dynamics, including contributing substantially to the overall species diversity in tropical forests, suppressing tree regeneration, increasing tree mortality, providing a valuable food source for animals, and physically linking trees together, thereby providing canopy-to-canopy access for arboreal animals (see papers listed below - Schnitzer & Bonger 2002, Schnitzer & Bonger 2011, and Wyka et al. 2013 for a general overview).

We are particularly interested in the impact of lianas on forest regeneration and the ecosystem-level effects of lianas, as well as the processes that maintain liana diversity and control their distribution throughout tropical and temperate forests.  Our initial results show that lianas substantially reduce the capacity of tropical forests to sequester and store carbon (Schnitzer et al. in review).  Currently, we have underway a number of studies in Costa Rica and Panama, including several large-scale, long-term studies on and nearby Barro Colorado Island, Panama, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).  Lianas are an important component in forests and there are opportunities for graduate and undergraduate research in this area.

Liana sampling methods.  Thanks, in part, to grants from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS), we have written a number of papers designed to standardize liana sampling protocols and to quantify the differences between alternative methods for estimating liana abundance, basal area, and biomass. 
 
Gerwing, J.J., S.A. Schnitzer, R.J. Burnham, F. Bongers, J. Chave, S.J. DeWalt, C.E.N. Ewango, R. Foster, D. Kenfack, M. Martinez-Ramos, M. Parren, N. Parthasarathy, D.R. Perez-Salicrup, F.E. Putz and D.W. Thomas (2006).  A standard protocol for liana censuses. Biotropica 38: 256-261.   AbstractPDF.

Schnitzer, S.A., S. Rutishauser, S. Aguilar.  Supplemental protocol for liana censuses. Forest Ecology and Management, 2008.  PDF.
** See also the Appendix, which is a field-version of the liana sampling protocol that concisely summarizes both Gerwing et al. 2006 and Schnitzer et al. 2008.  Para el version en espanol, click aqui: metodos en Espańol

Schnitzer, S.A., S.J. DeWalt, and J. Chave (2006).  Censusing and measuring lianas: a quantitative comparison of the common methods. Biotropica, 38: 581-591.  AbstractPDF.

Kurzel, B.P., S.A. Schnitzer, and W.P. Carson (2006).  Predicting liana crown location from stem diameter in three Panamanian forests. Biotropica 38: 262-266.  AbstractPDF.

Parren, M.P.E., F. Bongers, G. Caballé, J. Nabe-Nielsen, and S.A. Schnitzer (2005).  On censusing lianas: a review of the issues.  Pages 41-58 in: Forest Climbing Plants of West Africa: Diversity, Ecology, and Management.  Bongers, F., M.P.E. Parren, and D. Traore, editors. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.

Go to: www.LianaEcologyProject.com for a comprehensive dataset containing all published liana-related research.

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Publications

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2014
Schnitzer, S.A., G.M.F. van der Heijden, J. Mascaro, W.P. Carson (2014). Lianas reduce biomass accumulation in a tropical forest. Ecology, in press.

Ledo, A. and S.A. Schnitzer (2014). Disturbance and clonal reproduction determine liana distribution and maintain liana diversity in a tropical forest. Ecology, in press.

Wright, A.J., S.A. Schnitzer, P.B. Reich (2014). Size matters when living close to your neighbors – the importance of both competition and facilitation in plant communities. Ecology, in press.

Mascaro, J., C.M Litton, R.F. Hughes, A. Uowolo, S.A. Schnitzer (2014). Is logarithmic transformation necessary in allometry? Ten, one-hundred, one-thousand times yes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 111: 230-233.

Schnitzer S.A. (in press). Lianas in forest ecosystems. In: Handbook of Ecology, Peh, K., R. Corlett, Y. Bergeron, editors. Routledge Publishing, New York, New York.

Schnitzer S.A., F. Bongers, R.J. Burnham, F.E. Putz, editors (in press). The Ecology of Lianas. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

Schnitzer, S.A., F.E. Putz, F. Bongers, K. Kroening (in press). The past, present, and future of liana ecology. In: The Ecology of Lianas, Schnitzer, S.A., F. Bongers, R.J. Burnham, F.E. Putz, editors.  Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

Schnitzer, S.A., S.A. Mangan, S.P. Hubbell (in press). Diversity and distribution of lianas on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. In: The Ecology of Lianas, Schnitzer, S.A., F. Bongers, R.J. Burnham, F.E. Putz, editors.  Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

Schnitzer, S.A. (in press). Increasing liana abundance and biomass in neotropical forests: causes and consequences.  In: The Ecology of Lianas, Schnitzer, S.A., F. Bongers, R.J. Burnham, F.E. Putz, editors.  Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

DeWalt, S.J., S.A. Schnitzer, et al. (in press). Biogeographical patterns of liana abundance and diversity.  In: The Ecology of Lianas, Schnitzer, S.A., F. Bongers, R.J. Burnham, F.E. Putz, editors.  Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

van der Heijden, G., O. Phillips, Schnitzer, S.A. (in press). Effects of lianas on forest level biomass.  In: Ecology of Lianas, Schnitzer, S.A., F. Bongers, R.J. Burnham, F.E. Putz, editors.  Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.


2013
Wright, A.J., S.A. Schnitzer, I. Dickie, A. Gunderson, G. Pinter, S.A. Mangan, P.B. Reich (2013). Facilitation and competition in woody species establishment in grasslands. Oecologia, 171: 449-458.

Yorke, S.R., S.A. Schnitzer, J. Mascaro, S. Letcher, W.P. Carson (2013). Increasing liana abundance and biomass in a tropical forest: the contribution of long distance clonal colonization. Biotropica, 45: 317-324.

van der Heijden, G.M.F., S.A. Schnitzer, J.S. Powers, O.L. Phillips (2013). Liana impacts on carbon cycling, storage and sequestration in tropical forests. Biotropica, 45: 682-692.

van der Sande, M, L. Poorter, S.A. Schnitzer, L. Markesteijn (2013). Are lianas more drought tolerant than trees? A test for the role of hydraulic architecture and other functional traits. Oecologia, 172: 961-972.

Wyka, T.P., J. Oleksyn, J., P. Karolewski, S.A. Schnitzer (2013). Phenotypic correlates of the lianescent growth form – a review. Annals of Botany. 112: 1667-1681.

Yanoviak, S.P. & S.A. Schnitzer (2013). Functional roles of lianas for forest canopy animals. Pages 209-214 in: Treetops at Risk, Lowman, M., S. Devy, T. Ganesh eds.  Springer Verlag, New York.

2012
Schnitzer, S.A., S.A. Mangan, J.W. Dalling, C. Baldeck, S.P. Hubbell, A. Ledo, H. Muller-Landau, M. Tobin, S. Aguilar, D. Brassfield, A. Hernandez, S. Lao, R. Perez, O. Valdez, S.R. Yorke. (2012). Liana abundance, diversity, and distribution on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. PLoS ONE 7(12): e52114. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052114.
 
Dalling, J.W., S.A. Schnitzer, C. Baldeck, K.E. Harms, R. John, S.A. Mangan, E. Lobo, J.B. Yavitt, S.P Hubbell (2012). Resource-based habitat associations in a neotropical liana community. Journal of Ecology, 100: 1174-1182.

Mascaro, J., R.F. Hughes, S.A. Schnitzer (2012). Novel forests maintain ecosystem processes after the decline of native tree species. Ecological Monographs, 82: 221-228.

Tobin, M.F., A.J. Wright, S.A. Mangan, S.A. Schnitzer (2012). Lianas have a greater competitive effect than trees of similar biomass on tropical canopy trees. Ecosphere, 3, Article 20: 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES11-00322.1

Dunn, J., V. Arroyo-Rodriguez, S.A. Schnitzer, J. Cristobal-Azkarate (2012). The ranging costs of a fallback food: liana consumption supplements diet but increases foraging effort in howler monkeys. Biotropica, 44: 705-714.

Cayuela L., L. Gálvez-Bravo, R. Pérez Pérez, F.S. de Albuquerque, D.J. Golicher, R.A. Zahawi, N. Ramírez-Marcial, C. Garibaldi, R. Field, J.M. Rey Benayas, M. González-Espinosa, P. Balvanera, M.A., Castillo, B.L. Figueroa-Rangel, G.A. Islebe, D.L. Kelly, M. Olvera-Vargas, S.A. Schnitzer, et al.  (2012). The tree biodiversity network (BIOTREE-NET): prospects for biodiversity research and conservation in the tropics. Biodiversity and Ecology, 4: 211-224.

Cayuela L., L. Gálvez-Bravo, F.S. de Albuquerque, D.J. Golicher, M. González-Espinosa, N. Ramírez-Marcial, J.M. Rey Benayas, R.A. Zahawi, J.A. Meave, B.M. Benito, C. Garibaldi, I. Chan, R. Pérez Pérez, R. Field, P. Balvanera, M.A., Castillo, B.L. Figueroa-Rangel, D.M. Griffith, G.A. Islebe, D.L. Kelly, M. Olvera-Vargas, S.A. Schnitzer, et al. (2012). La Red Internacional de Inventarios Forestales (BIOTREE-NET) en Mesoamérica: avances, retos y perspectivas futuras. Ecosistemas, 21: 126-135.
2011
Schnitzer, S.A. and F. Bongers (2011).  Increasing liana abundance and biomass in tropical forests: emerging patterns and putative mechanisms. Ecology Letters, 14: 397-406.  PDF.

Schnitzer, S.A., J. Klironomos, J. HilleRisLambers, L.L Kinkel, P.B. Reich, K. Xiao, M. Rillig, B.A. Sikes, R. Callaway, S.A. Mangan, E.H. van Ness, and M. Scheffer (2011).  Soil-borne microbes drive the classic asymptotic diversity-productivity pattern. Ecology, 92: 296-303.  PDF.
 
Schnitzer, S.A., F. Bongers, S.J. Wright (2011).  Community and ecosystem ramifications of increasing lianas in neotropical forests.  Plant Signaling & Behavior, 6: 598-600. PDF.

Schnitzer, S.A. and J. Klironomos (2011).  Soil microbes regulate ecosystem productivity and maintain species diversity.  Plant Signaling & Behavior, 6: 598-600. PDF.

Mascaro, J. and S.A. Schnitzer (2011). Dominance by the introduced tree Rhamnus cathartica (common buckthorn) may limit carbon storage in Southern Wisconsin forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 261: 545-550.

Mascaro, J., C.M Liton, R.F. Hughes, A. Uowolo, and S.A. Schnitzer (2011). Allometric models of aboveground tree biomass: to transform or not to transform. Biotropica,
43: 649-653

Lambert, T.D., M.K. Halsey, J. Dittel, S.A. Mangan, E. Delfosse, G.H. Adler, and S.A. Schnitzer (2011). First record of Alston’s Woolly Mouse Opossum (Micoureus alstoni) from the canal area of Central Panama. Mamalia, 75: 107-109.
2010
Schnitzer, S.A. and W.P. Carson (2010).  Lianas suppress tree regeneration and diversity in treefall gaps. Ecology Letters, 13: 849-857. PDF.

Mangan S.A., S.A. Schnitzer, E.A. Herre, K. Mack, M. Valencia, E. Sanchez and J.D. Bever (2010). Negative plant-soil feedback predicts relative species abundance in a tropical forest. Nature, 466: 752-756. 

Ingwell, L.L., S.J. Wright, K.K. Becklund, S.P. Hubbell and S.A. Schnitzer (2010). The impact of lianas on 10 years of tree growth and mortality on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Journal of Ecology, 98: 879-887. PDF.

DeWalt, S.J, S.A. Schnitzer, J. Chave, F. Bongers, R.J. Burnham, D.B. Clark, C.E.N. Ewango, J.L. Gerwing, K. Ickes, D. Kenfack, M. Martínez-Ramos, J. Mascaro, H.C. Muller-Landau, M.P.E. Parren, N. Parthasarathy, D.R. Pérez-Salicrup, F.E. Putz, H.G. Romero-Saltos and D. Thomas (2010).  Annual rainfall and seasonality predict pan-tropical patterns of liana density and basal area. Biotropica,
42: 309-317.  PDF.
  2009
Cai, Z.Q., S.A. Schnitzer, and F. Bongers (2009).  Seasonal differences differences in leaf-level physiology give lianas a competitive advantage over trees in a tropical forest. Oecologia 161: 25-33.

HilleRisLambers, J., W.S. Harpole, S.A. Schnitzer, D. Tilman, and P.B. Reich (2009).  The effects of elevated CO2, nitrogen deposition and declining diversity on seed production of prairie grasses and forbs. Ecology 90: 1810-1820.


Sánchez-Azofeifa, G.A., K. Castro, S.J. Wright, J. Gamon, M. Kalacska, B. Rivard, S.A. Schnitzer, and J.L. Feng. (2009). Differences in leaf traits, leaf internal structure, and spectral reflectance between two communities of lianas and trees. Remote Sensing and the Environment 113: 2076-2088.

Sánchez-Azofeifa, G.A., M. Kalacska, M.M. do Espírito-Santo G.W. Fernandes, and S.A. Schnitzer (2009). Tropical dry forest succession and the contribution of Lianas to Wood Area Index (WAI). Forest Ecology and Management 258: 941-948.

Cai, Z.Q., S.A. Schnitzer, B. Wen, Y.J. Chen, and F. Bongers (2009).  The liana community in three tropical forest types in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 21: 252-264.

   2008
Schnitzer, S.A., R.A. Londré, J. Klironomos, and P.B. Reich (2008).  Biomass and toxicity responses of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) to elevated atmospheric CO2: Comment.  Ecology, 89: 581-585.  PDF.

Schnitzer, S.A., S. Rutishauser, and S. Aguilar (2008).  Supplemental protocol for liana censuses. Forest Ecology and Management, 255: 1044-1049. PDF.

Paine, C.E.T., K.E. Harms, S.A. Schnitzer, and W.P. Carson (2008).  Weak competition among tropical tree seedlings: implications for species coexistence. Biotropica, 40: 432-440.
* Winner of the 2009 Biotropica Award for Excellence in Tropical Biology and Conservation.

Mascaro J., K. Becklund, F. Hughes, and S.A. Schnitzer (2008). Limited native plant recruitment in exotic-dominated forests in Hawai’i. Forest Ecology & Management, 256: 593-606.

Garrido-Pérez, E.I., J.M. Dupuy, R. Durán-García, G. Gerold, S.A. Schnitzer, and M. Ucan-May (2008). Structural effects of lianas and hurricane wilma on trees in Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 24: 559-562.

Carson, W.P. and S.A. Schnitzer, Editors (2008). Tropical Forest Community Ecology. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.  536 pp. (Download Table Of Contents)

Schnitzer, S.A. and W.P Carson (2008).  Tropical forest community ecology: scope of the book and key contributions.  Pages: 3-8 in: Tropical Forest Community Ecology, Carson, W.P. and Schnitzer, S.A., editors.  Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

Schnitzer, S.A., J. Mascaro, and W.P Carson (2008).  Treefall gaps and the maintenance of species diversity in tropical forests.  Pages: 196-209 in: Tropical Forest Community Ecology, Carson, W.P. and Schnitzer, S.A., editors. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

Carson, W.P., J. Anderson, E. Leigh, and S.A. Schnitzer (2008).  Challenges Associated with Testing and Falsifying the Janzen-Connell Hypothesis: A Review and Critique.  Pages: 210-241 in: Tropical Forest Community Ecology, Carson, W.P. and Schnitzer, S.A., editors. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

   2007
Mascaro, J. and S.A. Schnitzer (2007). Rhamnus cathartica (common buckthorn) as an ecosystem dominant in southern Wisconsin forests. Northeastern Naturalist, 14: 387-402.

Dickie, I.A., S.A. Schnitzer, P.B. Reich, and S.E. Hobbie (2007). Is oak establishment in old fields and savannas context dependent? Journal of Ecology, 95: 309-320.

Dickie, I.A., R.A. Montgomery, P.B. Reich, and S.A. Schnitzer (2007).  Physiological and phenological responses of oak seedlings to oak forest soil in the absence of trees. Tree Physiology, 27: 133-140.
2006
Londré, R.A. and S.A. Schnitzer (2006)The distribution of lianas and their change in abundance in temperate forests over the past 45 years. Ecology, 87: 2973-2978. AbstractPDF.
Schnitzer, S.A., S.J. DeWalt, and J. Chave (2006).  Censusing and measuring lianas: a quantitative comparison of the common methods. Biotropica, 38: 581-591.  AbstractPDF.

Kurzel, B.P., S.A. Schnitzer, and W.P. Carson (2006).  Predicting liana crown location from stem diameter in three Panamanian forests. Biotropica 38: 262-266.  AbstractPDF.

Gerwing, J.J., S.A. Schnitzer, R.J. Burnham, F. Bongers, J. Chave, S.J. DeWalt, C.E.N. Ewango, R. Foster, D. Kenfack, M. Martinez-Ramos, M. Parren, N. Parthasarathy, D.R. Perez-Salicrup, F.E. Putz and D.W. Thomas (2006).  A standard protocol for liana censuses. Biotropica 38: 256-261.   AbstractPDF.

Mascaro, J. and S.A. Schnitzer (2006).  Structuring of forest plant communities through variable disturbance severity. Invited chapter in Ecological Research. Pages 1-27 in: New Developments in Ecological Research, A.R. Burke, editor. NOVA Science Publishers, New York.
 2005

Schnitzer, S.A. (2005).  A mechanistic explanation for the global patterns of liana abundance and distribution. The American Naturalist, 166: 262-276.  AbstractPDF.
Schnitzer, S.A., M. Kuzee, and F. Bongers (2005).  Disentangling above- and below-ground competition between lianas and trees in a tropical forest. Journal of Ecology, 93: 1115-1125.  AbstractPDF.

Dickie, I.A., S.A. Schnitzer, P.B. Reich, and S.E. Hobbie (2005). Spatially disjunct effects of co-occurring competition and facilitation. Ecology Letters, 8: 1191-1200.  Abstract.

Andrade, J.L., F.C. Meinzer, G. Goldstein, and S.A. Schnitzer (2005).  Water uptake and transport in lianas and co-occurring trees of a seasonally dry tropical forest. Trees: Structure & Function, 19: 282-289.  Abstract.

Schnitzer, S.A. and F. Bongers (2005).  Lianas and gap-phase regeneration: implications for forest dynamics and species diversity. Invited chapter in : Forest Climbing Plants of West Africa: Diversity, Ecology, and Management. Bongers, F., M.P.E. Parren, and D. Traore, eds. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.

Parren, M.P.E., F. Bongers, G. Caballé, J. Nabe-Nielsen, and S.A. Schnitzer (2005).  On censusing lianas: a review of the issues.  Pages 41-58 in: Forest Climbing Plants of West Africa: Diversity, Ecology, and Management. Bongers, F., M.P.E. Parren, and D. Traore, editors. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.
 2004

Schnitzer, S.A., M.P.E. Parren, and F. Bongers (2004).  Recruitment of lianas into logging gaps and the effects of pre-harvest liana cutting in a lowland forest in Cameroon. Forest Ecology and Management 190: 87 - 98.  Abstract.  PDF.

Mascaro, J., S.A. Schnitzer, and W.P. Carson (2004).  Liana diversity, abundance, and mortality in a tropical wet forest in Costa Rica.  Forest Ecology and Management 190: 3 - 14.  AbstractPDF.

Holmgren, M. and S.A. Schnitzer (2004).  Science on the rise in developing countries. PLoS Biology 2: 10-13Abstract.  PDF.

Pérez-Salicrup, D.R., S.A. Schnitzer and F.E. Putz (2004).  Community ecology and management of lianas. Forest Ecology and Management, 190: 1-2.

Stevens, M.H.H., D. Bunker, S. A. Schnitzer and W.P. Carson (2004).  Declining plant species richness along a nutrient gradient is not due to seed limitation.  Journal of Ecology 92: 339 - 347.

 2003

Carson, W.P. and S.A. Schnitzer (2003). Nouragues: Deep forest ecology.  Book review: Nouragues: Dynamics and Plant-animal Interactions in a Neotropical Rainforest.  Ecology 84: 1340-1341.
 2002

Schnitzer, S.A. and F. Bongers (2002).  The ecology of lianas and their role in forests. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17: 223 - 230. AbstractPDF.

Schnitzer, S.A., P.B. Reich, B. Bergner, and W.P. Carson (2002).  Herbivore and pathogen damage on grassland and woodland plants: A test of the Herbivore Uncertainty Principle. Ecology Letters 5: 531-539.  AbstractPDF.

Bongers, F., S.A. Schnitzer, and D. Traore (2002).  The importance of lianas and consequences for forest management in West Africa.  BioTerre, Special edition: 59 - 70.

 2001

Schnitzer, S.A. and W.P. Carson (2001).  Treefall gaps and the maintenance of species diversity in a tropical forest. Ecology 82: 913 - 919.  AbstractPDF.
 2000

Schnitzer, S.A., J.W. Dalling and W.P. Carson (2000).  The impact of lianas on tree regeneration in tropical forest canopy gaps: Evidence for an alternative pathway of gap-phase regeneration. Journal of Ecology 88: 655 - 666. AbstractPDF.

Schnitzer, S.A. and W.P. Carson (2000).  Have we missed the forest because of the trees? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 376 - 377.  PDF.
 1999

Schnitzer, S.A. and W.P. Carson (1999).  Tropical environments. Invited chapter in The Encyclopedia of Environmental Sciences, Alexander, D.E. and R. Fairbridge. (editors). McGraw-Hill Publishing, pp. 605 - 609.

Books and Journals


S.A. Schnitzer, F. Bongers, R. Burnham, F.E. Putz, editors (Coming Soon!). The Ecology of Lianas.  Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

Carson, W.P. and S.A. Schnitzer, editors (2008). Tropical Forest Community Ecology. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. 517 pp.

Pérez-Salicrup, D.R., S.A. Schnitzer, and F.E. Putz, guest editors (2004). Community Ecology and Management of Lianas in Tropical Forests. Special Issue of Forest Ecology and Management 190.



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